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UND 362 DC and Gross

QuestionAnswer
What general info is given during grossing ID, fresh v FS, diagrams and margins, pin out specs, remove clips, wrap small specs
what is the typical thickness/dimension that a spec should be when grossed in? 3mm thick with 2mm buffer w/in cassette
what are the special prep specs in grossing FS, micro, photographs, E/M with fix of gluteraldehyde or paraformadehyde, chromosome analysis, calculi, hormone receptors
what are the rush specs in grossing endoscopic bx's, transplant tissues, transplant rejection tissues
what is the typical fixative in grossing and 3 special ones formalin, bouins for trichrome, zenkers for PTAH, and B5 for bone marrow
What can be done with fatty tissue to clear use acetone, but it will alter nuclear morphology
what should be avoided with decal pertaining to bone avoid bone with soft tissue
what is ink used for in grossing orient surface, margin, sides; proximal and distal margins;all margins on breast inkend darker colers work better with microscope
what should be avoided when inking areas containing an lesion
how many measurements are taken during gross 2 or 3 dimensions (or aggregate), smallest to largest diameter
what are some of the histology terms used in grossing pertaining to sections? cross section, transverse section, longitudinal section, on edge, on end, en face, cut side down
Pertaining to legal issues in histology name a couple socially sensitive and a likely forensics spec (and what must be done with it) socially (POC, abortions) forensics - bullets, must follow chain of custody and MUST NOT be let unattended
how are skins cut Punchs are bisected larger than .5cm dia
Lymph nodes are typically for? and for what specs FS, micro, Touch prep, flow, cytogenetics, hormones, biochem assay (mostly from breast,prostate, colon
what is the proper dimensions bone 3-5mm (not less than 2 or it will release from paraffin)
dense bone v porous will take what timeframe dense bone will take longer than porous
what is the typical fixative for bone formalin (not recommended to use alcoholic formalin or 70% alcohol because it will slow the process)
what is the positive and negative for using zenkers with bone marrow dual purpose fix and decal, but it can dissolve iron and contains mercury (mercury pigment). it will also cause radiopacity.
what is the best way to set the cassettes in decal suspend or set on gauze (do not place flat on botton, all sides should be exposed)
what must be done with decal'd bone before putting it in formalin? MUST be washed or the decal (hcl) and formalin will cause bis-chloromethyl ether
what fixative can be used for bone and what must it be placed in afterwards picric acid (but must go directly into alcohol)
name 4 decal agent properties speed, prevent cell damage (via acid), preserve tissue morphology, change stain ability of tissue
List 4 decal methods Acid, chelating, ion-exchange, electrical ionization (microwave)
what happens during acid decalcification calcuim salts (carbonate and phosphate) dissolve and then ionize (ie gain pos. or neg. charge) when exposed to acids
at what ph is calcium soluble at 4.5
name the 2 strong acids for decal and 4 properties nitric or HCL INORganic, rapid, recommended conc. 5-10%, affects stainibility (time must be monitored)
name 3 weak acids and give 2 properties formic, acetic, picric ORGanic, slow but gentle
what is the proper decal method wash-dc-check dc (chemically or via bone), wash, if not full dc replace solution and repeat until done, WASH
what are four common descripters for using formic acid as a DC? its common, slow, weak, organic
name the 6 formic acid decalcifiers lilly, evans & krajian, Kristensens, Gooding and Stewart, Commercial (eg immunocal), and one with no name
what is the formula for lilly DC 5% formic acid (works ok at room temp but at 37○C (98○F) it will interfere with staining)
what is the formala for evans and krajian DC 25% formic acid and 10% sodium citrate
what is the formula for Kristensens DC sodium formate and formic acid
what is the formula for gooding and steward DC formic acid and formalin
what is a formic DC formula that doesn't have a trademark 8% formic acid and 8% HCL
How are HCL and Nitric Acid DC's in terms of speed They are rapid DC
Using HCL DC at 37○C will affect eosin, alum/weigerts hematox, feulgen and azure eiosin stains Eosin will be OK, Alum/Weigerts will be impaired, Feulgen will not work, and azure eosin will give pink cytoplasm and nuclear stain
using HCL DC at 55○C will cause what lost of Ca salt and hydrolysis of bone matrix
HCL DC will cause what and how can it be prevented hcl will cause tissue swelling, it can be prevented by adding chromic acid, alcohol, or NACL to the HCL
List 3 HCL DC formulas and their formula von ebers (Hcl/sodium chloride), richman-gelfand-hill (formic/HCL), commercial DC's containg hcl
give 4 facts about Nitric acid as a DC rapid, best after formalin fixation, will impair nuclear staining after 48 hrs, will produce an unsatisfactory geimsa stain
What are the 4 Nitric acid DC formulas 5-10% aqueous nitric acid, perenyis fluid (10% nitric acid, alcohol, chromic acid), 5% nitric acid/formalin, Commercial nitric DC
What is chelating DC organic (binding w/ metals)
give 4 facts pertaining to chelating DC slow but gentle, doesn't damage tissue or ability to stain (therefore good for EM and IHC/enzymes, takes 2-4 days for 3mm section, exact ph not critical
how does chelating work? EDTA binds calcium ion from outer shell of apetite crystal (which gets reduced)
How does Ion exchange work for DC ammoniom ions are exchanged for Ca ions (formic acid remains clear of Ca
Describe visually what an ion exchange setup would look like glass jar with 10-20% resin (ammoniated salt) on the bottom and 80-90%formic acid on top (with bone laying on top of resin
what are the advantages of using ion exchange resin for DC good preservation, eliminates daily changes, resin can be reclaimed
describe using electrical ionization for DC (rarely used), elect. current to solution, the current draws the neg. calcuim to the + carbon cathode
what are two disadvantages to using electrical ionization heat is generated therefore potential damage, limited specs can be done at a time
what are 3 positives and 1 possible drawback to using a microwave for DC can fix and DC, reduced time, consistent slides be careful not to OVER decalcify
give 7 factors affecting DC rate conc. and volume, temp, agitation, suspension, type of bone, spec size, patients age.
how does concentration and volume affect dc? increased conc. will decrease the DC time but will increase staining problems. (use large volumes for multiple specs)
how does temp affect DC increase temp will decrease time but will increase staining problems (it is best at 20-25○C)
what are the two types of bone and how would they affect DC cortical (hard), cancellious (spongy) bone. Harder bone would take longer
what are the 5 ways that the DC endpoint can be determined xray (most accurate), chemical (accurate), physical (possible damage), weight loss/gain, bubble test
how can you use a chemical to check for dc end pt. take 5ml of each (dc fluid, 5% ammonium hydroxide, 5% ammonium oxalate) check for turbidity (if precipitate then DC not complete, change DC)
what are 4 facts about using xray to check for dc end pt uses visible evidence (pre and then post xray), expensive, BEST METHOD, can't be used with zenkers or B5 fixed bone because they have mercuric chlorid which will cause radiopacity
how is DC checked physically done by probing or bending (not recommended because it can cause artifacts and is innacurate) if done probing side of spec is best
how is the bubble technique used to test DC endpoint acid (with calcuim) will cause bubble formation, jar is shaken to remove, when no bubbles are present DC is done (UNRELIABLE)
How can weight loss/gain be used to check dc endpoint weigh bone, DC, weigh (weight loss will = Ca loss, DC in fresh soln', repeat until their is weight gain indicating that there is water uptake in the bone
How is surface DC done during microtomy (when DC not complete or soft tissue has Ca deposit) 1. rough cut block 2. put block face down in DC for 15-60 min., wash, resection
Created by: mustangvxd