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Finals US History

Reconstruction: Reconstruction was the period after the American Civil War in which attempts were made to solve the political, social, and economic problems arising from the readmission to the Union of the 11 Confederate states that had seceded at or before the outbreak
Lincoln Plan After major Union victories at the battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln began preparing his plan for Reconstruction to reunify the North and South after the war's end.
Johnson Plan - grant amnesty to southerners - southern states had to ratify 13th amendment
Radical Republicans - prevent conference leaders from returning to power - wanted to punish south after Civil war - Freedman's Bureau - help african americans achieve political equality (right to vote)
Impeachment of Johnson wanted to go easy on South after Civil War Congress wanted South to suffer Johnson vetoed most bills Congress passed. Congress overrode 15 of Johnson's vetoes. Congress passed, over Johnson's veto,Tenure of Office Act that required President to seek congr
13th amendment - prohibited slavery (ended)
14th amendment -former slaves gain citizenship and equal protection under the law
15th amendment - blacks can vote (federal elections)
Compromise of 1877 unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election, pulled federal troops out of state politics in the South, and ended the Reconstruction Era
Westward Expansion: Series of journeys to create more land for America
Reasons people settled west 1.) wanted better life 2.) heard that there was land and opportunities for those who were not afraid of hard work. 3.) blacks called exodus wanted more opportunities 4.) people searched for gold 5.) Manifest Destiny
Homestead Act: 1862, Federal Law -federal government decided US should settle the plains to the west - industrialists needed resources - $10 fee - farm it for 5 years - 160 acres was yours for free
Assimilation Native Americans made similar to dominant culture - Forced onto reservations - Learn English - Farm instead of nomadic - Indian school: youth sent East - Dawes Act: Homestead Act for Indians
Battle of Wounded Knee Rseservation, massacre of Indians there - most Natives groups gave up after massacre - 200 unarmed Sioux were killed
Battle of Little Bighorn 5 Indian nations wiped out George Custer's cavalry - last victory for Native group
Trans-continetal railroad Race between railroad companies - government encouraged RR companies to build tracks - gave land to RR - RR could see that land to settlers for profit
16th amendment - Income Tax - way to raise revenue to pay for new Progressive programs - gov. becoming more involved in people lives and economy - became graduated income tax
Horizontal integration the combining of competing firms in 1 corporation
Laissez-Faire policy that government should interfere as little as possible in nation's economy Pros: low taxes, no government regulation of prices and wages Cons: Monoplies, exploited workers, pollution Tariff (Tax on imports)
Vertical integration combining of companies that supply equipment and services needed
Carnegie Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century
Socialism political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Rockefeller American business magnate and philanthropist. He was a co-founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
Robber Barons what Industries like Carnegie and Rockefeller were called - were too harsh on workers - economy because monopolies - low wages, long hours, dangerous working conditions
Monopoly Company hat gains control over an entire market of the industry; no competition - outlawed by late 1800s
Capitalism economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
Reason for the development of labor unions - poor working conditions - hours - wages
Reasons people opposed labor unions
Social Darwinism Some are more "fit" to be leaders than others - Industrial leaders agreed with it - goes with laissez- faire
Reasons for Immigration - jobs - avoid military service - religious freedom - move up in life - escape poverty
W.E.B. DuBois believed blacks had to demand their right, especially voting rights to gain full equality
Life in the tenements multi-family apartments, usually dark, crowded, barely meeting minimum living standards
Gospel of Wealth article written by Andrew Carnegie describes responsibility by the upper classes to give for the public good, to put their money to good use
Booker T. Washington urged African Americans achieve economic goals rather than legal/political
Nativism Extreme dislike of foreigns by native-born - led to discrimination, Racial violence
Populism People(mainly farmers) that wanted government to make changes to improve economy - Free silver - increase of price of farm goods
Jim Crow Laws that enforced segregation in south - separated whites/blacks in almost all public places -
Tammany Hall corrupt political corporation - helped immigrants
Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 "Separate but equal" clause - Allowed segregation as long as facilities were equal - rarely were facilities of equal quality - Jim Crow Laws were deemed legal
Progressivism Progess/Reform of government: Gov. take active role in society - improve society - government take a role in improvement - reduce influence of Big Business on gov. policy
Suffrage right to vote in political elections
Referendum general vote by the electorate on a single political question that has been referred to them for a direct decision.
Policies of Wilson Democratic - Federal Reserve: regulate banks - Clayton Antitrust Act (more trust-bonding) - Progressive Amendments all ratified
19th Amendment Women's Suffrage - last major reform of Progressive Era (1920) - right to vote
Muckrakers journalists who investigated social conditions and political corruption
Policies of Taft Republican - natinional parks, conservational - regulate food industry - "trust buster" broke up monopolies
Imperialism the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker nations
Causes of Imperialism Economical Military Nationalist Humanitarian Communication
Teddy Roosevelt - "Big Stick" diplomacy - negotiate to protect our interests first - won't hestiate to use military force if you make it necessary
Open Door Policy all nations trade with China - US favored it
USS Maine battleship sent to "protect Americans interests" (business) - blows up in Havana Harbor
Taft- Dollar diplomacy President Taft wanted to keep other nations as allies by giving them sending troops to conquer
Yellow Journalism newspaper influence of government/political/people to start war over USS Maine exploding (Twisted Truth)
Roosevelt Corollary US will use military force if necessary to prevent European powers in colonizing Latin America
Treaty of Paris signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other
Causes of Spanish American War Short war dramatically altered US position on world stage - Cubans revolted against Spanish rule 1895; Americans supported rebelsUS government was officially neutralUS sent USS Maine to "protect Americans business" and blows up newspaper blame Spanish
WW1 July 28, 1914,Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Germany, Russia, Great Britain, and France were all drawn into the war, largely because they were involved in treaties that obligated them to defend certain other nations.War ended November 11, 1918
Causes of WW1 (MAIN) Militarism Allicances Imperialism Nationalism
Role of women officially served in armed forces - ambulance drivers, nurses, clerks, truck drivers - not combat - served separately - took over men jobs in factories during war
Espionage and Sedition Acts - illegal to talk anything disloyal about government - illegal to interfere with war effort
Allies Great Britain France Russia
Role of African Americans - were segregated - few allowed into combat - some fought with French Army (not segregated) - back to discrimination, lynchings, voting restrictions when returning from war
Propaganda goals in WW1
Central Powers Germany Austria Hungray Ottomar Empire Italy
League of Nations all countries join together for common security/peace - US did join
Members of the Big Four Italy, Great Britain, America, France
Reasons the US entered WW1 - Submarine Warfare - the Lusitania - Zimmerman Telegraph
14 points 14 ideas that would end war forever, including: League of Nations
Jazz Age - discrimination in 1920s - new technology in 1920s and impact on daily lives - transition from Traditional viewpoints to Modern era
Prohibition (18th amendment) outlawed alcohol - thought would reduce poverty/violence
Scopes Trial 1925 Tennessee made it illegal to teach evolution - put on trial, found guilty, case later overturned
Charles Lindbergh 1927 Atlantic flight New York to Paris
Great Migration African American from South to industrial cities in the North - influenced election outcomes in the North, voted Republican - better life/job
Harlem Renaissance massive creative outpouring of African Americans arts
Coolidge "the business of America is business" Economic policy: Laissez Faire Foreign Policy: Kellogg-Briand Pact
Effects of prohibition - increased crime rate - illegal drinking
Sacco and Vanzetti The Italian immigrants, Sacco and Vanzetti, were arrested for an armed robbery in South Braintree, Massachusetts, in which a guard and a paymaster were killed. They were found guilty and sentenced to death in electric chair.
Red Scare 1st was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. 2nd. was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society, infiltrating the federal government, or both
Harding 29th president and Republican -protected alcohol interests and moderately supported women's suffrage
Fundamentalism A religious movement -Some Americans worried about America's social decline
Teapot Dome Scandal incident that took place in the United States from 1920 to 1923, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding
Great Depression worldwide depression struck countries with market economies at the end of the 1920s
Hoover 31st president
Causes of Depression Overproduction, Farm Crisis, Stock market crash (October 29, 1929), Government limited $ supply, Banks failed, out of balance economy, Debt (overspending), tariffs (Hawley-Smoot), Speculation in stock market, Dust Bowl, Laissez-Faire
Causes of the stock market crash - speculation - too much margin (buying without cash)
Effect of the stock market crash - panic - poverty - bank failures - unemployment
Capitalism Private ownership of business - Also called Free Enterprise - Related to democracy
Socialism government owns business and means of production - related to communism and totalitarianism - related to Communism - related to totalitarianism
Domestic Policy with regards to home front or domestic issues - taxes - Laissez- faire - New Deal - Build transcend RR -
Democracy system of government where the whole populations vote of representatives
Foreign Policy government's strategy in dealing with other nations
Totalitarianism form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
Isolationism Foreign Policy - policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, esp. the political affairs of other countries
Suffrage the right to vote
Laissez- Faire economy theory strongly opposed to government being involved in any businesses
Imperialism economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker nations
Created by: aadams607