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1920s terms&people

TermDefinition
Palmer raids attempts to round up & deport radical left-wings that were suspected to be communists; part of the "red scare"; leading the "raids" was Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
Sacco & Vanzetti Case case in which Italian immigrants Nicola Sacco & Batolomeo Vanzetti were convicted & electrocuted for the crime of murdering a Mass. paymaster and his guard; trial was held with a biased jury; it is now speculated that Sacco & Vanzetti were falsely accused
Ku Klux Klan reborn in 1920s; not just anti-black, also against immigrants & those of diff. views (aren't WASP); spread throughout the country regardless of class or region; took on a noble, chivalrous image; had to be a member to succeed in certain occupations
Emergency Quota Act (1921)temp. solution; restricted # of immigrants to 3% of the population of the immigrant's nationality in the US in 1910; favorable towards immigrants from southern & eastern Europe because many peoples from these areas immigrated to the US before 1910
Immigration Act of 1924 reduced immigration quota to 2% of each nationality according its population in the US in 1890; favored N. Europeans because there were hardly any S. European immigrants in the US before 1890; signaled end of nearly unrestricted immigration
Eighteenth Amendment authorized 1919; banned alcohol w/content>2.75%; implemented by Vosltead Act; in S., represented whites fearing drunk blacks; in W., represented attack on "wild west" culture; in E. cities, for immigrants, drinking is a part of sociability
Prohibition no alcohol w/content>2.75%; noble but naive concept; helped increase bank savings & reduce car accident death rate&drunk worker absences, but enforcement wasn't solid; hard alcohol in speakeasies & the White House; led to increase of gangsterism
"drys" vs. "wets" "dry"=alcohol content<2.75% "wet"=hard alcohol content>2.75%
"noble experiment" prohibition;while the it had good intentions (hence "noble"), nothing like it had been tried before in the US (hence "experiment"); results were good (increased bank savings, decreased factory absences & car accidents), but prohib. not followed completely
Scopes Monkey Trial Dayton, TN 1925; sham trial to bring attention to creation vs. evolution; John T. Scopes' (gym, not biology, teacher) defense attorney-Clarence Darrow; WJ Bryan- prosecutor; Bryan gets cross-examined, Darrow chickens out; Scopes found guilty & fined $100
Model T "Tin Lizzie"; one of 1st functioning gasoline-powered cars, 1st gasoline car fit for consumers; developed by Henry Ford & built on an assembly line; led to cultural & sexual revolution, car-related inventions, & higher standard of living
Standardization setting a norm for American culture; e.g. mass production (all Model T's look alike and many people own one; every house has a radio) and tastes (colloquialism, entertainment)
"Fordism" economic & sovcial system based on mass-production (stems from Ford's use of the assembly line to mass produce Model T's)
KDKA Pittsburgh radio station that broadcast news of Harding landslide; world's 1st commercial radio station
The Birth of a Nation (1915) by DW Griffith; glorified KKK and defamed blacks & N. carpetbaggers; phenomenal filming skill for its time; shown in White House under Wilson; credited with rekindling the KKK
The Jazz Singer (1927) 1st "talkie" movie; featured White Jew Al Jolson in blackface; movie theaters had to be "wired for sound"
flappers free-spirited women who went against traditional views of females; wore short dresses, lipstick, and one-piece bathing suits, had short hair, drank alcohol, and danced to jazz ("black music"), e.g. the Charleston
Harlem Renaissance time in 1920s during which the black community of Harlem nurtured numerous black artists and writers, one of which was Langston Hughes
United Negro Improvement Association founded by Jamaincan-born Marcus Garvey in Harlem; promoted resettlement of American blacks to "African homeland"; inspired race pride among 4 million black UNIA followers; important to founding of Nation of Islam movement
The Lost Generation (to be found elsewhere) generation that came after WWI; term popularized by E Hemingway; writers of this generation were many times "new immigrants" and wrote of new codes of morals & understanding, focusing on themes relevant to modern occurrences (e.g. WWI, cultural changes)
The Great Gatsby (1925) written by F. Scott Fitzgerald; story based on wild life of flappers & rich party-goers
The Sun Also Rises (1926) written by Ernest Hemingway; story about disillusioned, spiritually numb Americans in Europe after the war
Bull Market frenzied speculation; boom-or-bust trading on the stock market; people invested everywhere, buying stocks "on margin"; wall street investors = bulls; allure of quick riches through the stock market drew in those with less money
"Never sell America short" never deny Americans of what they want (which is $$$$)
A. Mitchell Palmer AKA "fighting Quaker"; an attorney general who took a large part in accusing radical left-wings of being communists; rounded up about 6,000 suspects; house was once bombed
Nicola Sacco shoe factory worker, Italian, atheist, anarchist, & draft dodger; convicted and electrocuted for murdering Mass. paymaster & guard
Bartolomeo Vanzetti fish peddler, Italian, atheist, anarchist, & draft dodger; convicted and electrocuted for murdering Mass. paymaster & guard
Al Capone AKA Scarface/Public Enemy Number One; rich gangster from Chicago; sold "wet" liquor; murdered his competition; jailed in 1932 for (of all things) falsifying income tax returns
William Jennings Bryan prosecutor in Scopes Monkey trial; Presbyterian Fundamentalist & expert on the Bible; allowed Darrow to cross-examine him but never got the chance to cross-examine Darrow; Darrow made him look like a fool; died 5 days after the end of the trial
Clarence Darrow famous criminal lawyer; defended Scopes; mocked Bryan while cross-examining him, resigned from him job before he himself got questioned
Andrew Mellon war & Treasury Secretary; tax policies favored expansion of capital investment
Henry Ford built fortune from an impoverished life; built the Model T & perfected the assembly line method of production; proclaimed "History is bunk" (ironic that he's now in a history book)
George Herman Ruth homerun hero and "image-maker" of the Yankees; countless fans bought tickets to see him; aided in making baseball part of the consumer economy w/his popularity drawing people in
Jack Dempsey heavyweight champion; some fans were willing to pay over a million dollars to watch him fight; aided in making boxing part of the consumer economy
Charles Lindbergh AKA flyin' fool; performed 1st solo W->E trip over the Atlantic for $25,000, using a single-engine plane; Americans found him to be a hero; helped strengthen aviation industry by dramatizing & popularizing flying, which was safer&faster than other options
Guglielmo Marconi Italian inventor who invented wireless telegraphy in 1890s
D.W. Griffith directed "The Birth of a Nation" (1915)
Al Jolson white Jew who performed in blackface as a jazz singer, both when acting in "The Jazz Singer" and as an occupation in the south
Dr. Sigmund Freud Viennese physician & pioneering psychologist; argued that sexual repression caused nervous & emotional ills, so health called for sexual gratification & liberation
Marcus Garvey feminist who championed use of contraceptives; founded "Birth Control Federation" which is now Planned Parenthood; believed in Eugenics
Langston Hughes a writer who was a product of the Harlem Renaissance; published 1st volume of verses in 1926 ("The Weary Blues")
F. Scott Fitzgerald Minnesota-born Princetonian; wrote about wild lifestyle in 1920's; became famous w/his work This Side of Paradise (1920); went on to write The Great Gatsby
Ernest Hemingway fought in WWI on Italian front 1917, which influenced most of his works; wrote The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farewell to Arms (1929); devised a lean, word-sparing, word-perfect style; shot himself in 1961
William Faulkner Mississippian; wrote bitter war novel Soldier's Pay (1926) and 2 novels about Deep South county, The Sound and the Fury (1929) and As I Lay Dying (1930)
Ezra Pound Idahoan poet; moved to Europe, rejected civilization; strongly influenced by T. S. Eliot ("The Waste Land" (1922))
Eugene O'Neill New York dramatist, Princeton dropout, playwright; wrote Strange Interlude (1928) about Freudian ideas of sex; wrote more than a dozen plays in 1920s & won Nobel Prize in 1936
gangsterism greatly increased in 1920s by prohibition; revolved around alcohol; bribed police; threatened citizens into giving money; machine guns; violence especially in Chicago w/Capone; eventually, gangsterism spread to prostitution, gambling, & narcotics
music jazz became more popular- Handy, "Jelly Roll" Morton, "Joe" King Oliver, Louis Armstrong-famous black musicians; but although jazz originates from African culture, industry replaced black bands w/ all-white bands (Paul Whiteman)- profits went to whites
roaring economics bull market + "never sell America short" + exponential increase in American debt + cutting down on income taxes = "roaring economics" = bad news for the future of the economy
Created by: KayT
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