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Unit One - GOV

Natural Rights Rights inherent in human beings, such as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
Consent of the Governed People must all agree on who their leaders are and what policies are chosen
Limited Government Places clear restrictions on what leaders can do
Constitution A nation's basic law; it creates political institutions and assigns or divides power
Articles of Confederation The first constitution adopted by the US. It established a legislature but gave most authority to the states
Shays' Rebellion A series of attacks on courthouses led by a small band of farmers to block foreclosure proceedings
Factions Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth; James Madison attacked them in Federalist Papers #10
New Jersey Plan Proposal at the Constitutional Conention that called for equal representation of each state regardless of population
Virginia Plan The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for representation of each state in proportion to that state's population
Writ of Habeas Corpus A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
Separation of Powers A feature of the COnstitution that requires each of the three branches of government to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot gain too much control
Checks and Balances Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions
Republic A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
Federalists Supporters of the Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption
Anti-Federalists Opponents of the Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption
Federalist Papers A collection of 85 articles written by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison to defend the Constitution in detail
Marbury v. Madison The 1803 Supreme Court case in which Chief Justice John Marshall asserted the Court's power of judicial review
Judicial Review The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress are in accord with the Constitution
Federalism A way of organizing the nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people
Unitary Governments A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government
Supremacy Clause Article VI of the Constitution states that the Constitution, national laws, and treaties are supreme over state laws
Tenth Amendment This states that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to the states, are reserved to the people
McCulloch v. Maryland An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments
Enumerated Powers Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution
Implied Powers Powers of the federal government that go beyond those recorded in the Constitution
Elastic Clause This authorizes Congress to pass all laws that are "necessary and proper"
Gibbons v. Ogden An 1824 Supreme Court decision which interpreted the elastic clause and gave Congress the power to regulate commerce
Full Faith and Credit Requires each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgements rendered by other states
Extradition A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed
Privileges and Immunities This accords citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states
Dual Federalism A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies
Cooperative Federalism A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between the states and the national government
Fiscal Federalism THe pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system
Categorical Grants Federal grants than can only be used for specific purposes, that come with strings attached, such as nondiscriminaition provisions
Project Grants Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications
Formula Grants Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation
Block Grants Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
Government The institutions and processes through which public policies are made
Public Goods Goods such as clean air and clean water that everyone must share
Politics The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue
Political Participation All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue
Single-issue Groups Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics
Linkage Institutions The political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda; including elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media
Policy Agenda The issues that attract the serious attention of the public officials and other people actually involved in politics
Democracy A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that the policy represents and responds to the public
Majority Rule A fundamental principle that states that any policy or choice requires the majority's vote
Minority Rights A principle that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities
Pluralist Theory A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own policies
Elite and Class Theory A theory of government that contends that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of the government
Hyperpluralism A theory of government that contends that groups are so strong that the government is weakened
Created by: livcolegrove