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Unit III Mesopotamia

Study Guide

Fertile Crescent - ________ is a region of fertile, well-watered land in the Middle East from the Persian Gulf, up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, down the eastern shores of Mediterranean Sea to the Nile River - World's oldest neolithic (farming) cities developed here
Mesopotamia - ____________was a good area for growing crops because the rivers flooded and deposited rich nutrient-rich soil called silt - ____________means "land between the rivers"; a river valley in the Fertile Crescent, present day Iraq
Drought - _________ is a LONG period of dry weather that may cause crop failure and ultimately a famine
Famine - ________ is a widespread lack of food, causing people to starve to death
Surplus - An extra supply of something (a resource) like food (wheat & barley), cloth, tools, or seeds that can be used to trade/barter with is called a ______________
Barter - A trade of one resource for another without the use of money
Sumer - _______ is a region on the plains between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, where the first farmers lived after moving out of the Zagros Mountains
City-State - A walled-city that has its own government (which were kings aka monarchs) and the farmland surrounding it is called a _________
Ziggurat - A ______________ is a Mesopotamian temple that could be found in the center of each major city-state - Each city's patron god or goddess was believed to sleep at the top each night - Wealthy families lived nearer to it
Cuneiform - __________ is the world's first system of writing, created by the Sumerians - Originally created to record business deals and evolved into a more complex system capable of writing poems & stories like, "Gilgamesh" - Name means "wedge shaped"
Babylon - ___ is a city-state slightly north of Sumer, that was famous for its hanging gardens - Was capital of two important empires. - Home of Hammurabi
Hammurabi - ___ is the King of Babylonia, famous for his legal system which punished you for crimes committed based on your social class. "Eye for an eye justice" Also created a postal service AND a system of roads throughout his empire
Code of Hammurabi - ___ is one of the oldest written systems of law - Punishments based on your social class. Poorer people received more severe punishments - Designed to unite the king's new empire and control behavior of his people - Influenced today's laws
Judaism - ____ is the world's first monotheistic religion - developed by shepherds from Sumer, including Abraham Abraham's teachings created Judaism, and eventually inspired Christianity & Islam
Abraham - ___ is the Hebrew leader (founder of the religion) who took his people from Sumer (Ur) to Canaan and created the world's first monotheistic religion, Judaism - His teachings also inspire Christianity and Islam
Canaan - ___ is the region settled by the ancient Hebrews, where present day Israel is. - Both Abraham and then Moses led the Jewish people here
Moses - ___ is the ancient Hebrew leader who led the Jews from slavery in Egypt to freedom in (Canaan) Jerusalem - According to the Torah and Bible, he received the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai
Polytheism - ___ is a type of religion that believes there are many gods - Everyone (Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans) were polytheistic until Abraham invented Judaism, the first monotheistic religion
Monotheism - ___ is a type of religion that believes there is only one God - Judaism is the first, but then it inspired many others including Christianity and Islam
Jerusalem - __ is the modern capital city in Israel, and ancient capital from which early Hebrew kings ruled
How did the resource of water and the need for irrigation affect the growth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent? - fresh water & irrigation technologies allowed farming of crops, which led to a stable food supply (surplus of food) - because irrigation systems needed constant maintenance, people started working together & formed larger and larger communities
drought (context) - To combat ___________________ , Sumerians created an irrigation system of canals, levees, reservoirs and dams to keep their crops watered.
Famine (context) - The Hebrews lived in Canaan until a drought caused a ____________ which forced them to move into Egypt where they were enslaved for hundreds of years
Barter (context) - Mesopotamians would trade or _____________with their surplus of wheat and barley for goods they could not produce in their own land such as stone, wood, metals and cloth.
City-state (context) - Abraham, the founder or creator of Judaism, was from the Sumerian city-state of Ur
Ziggurat (context) - Only the priest was allowed at the top of the city-state's _________ to worship the patron god and provide offerings.
Cuneiform (context) - Sumerians were the first to invent__________________ to keep written records, which was so awesome, it was adopted by every empire who came after them
Code of Hammurabi (context) - Hammurabi's purpose for writing down his ______________ was to help unite his empire and establish expectations of behavior for his people. He said that the laws were from the gods!
Judaism (context) - ____________________ is still practiced by approximately 15 million people around the world today and together with Christianity and Islam represent over 50% of the world population.
Sargon -_____ was king who founded Akkadian Empire -Famous for battle formation (phalanx) shield holders in front & spears thrust from behind - knocked down city walls - replaced conquered leaders w/ loyal friends - Sons inherited power after death
Hammurabi - ___ was King of the city-state of Babylon, who is famous for his set of laws known as Hammurabi's Code - Also famous for creating a postal service and a system of roads
Nebuchadrezzar II - ___ was King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire who expanded the empire by driving the Egyptians out of Syria, and conquering Canaan. - Defended capital w/ double walls, archer towers, moats & drawbridge! - Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife
Mesopotamian Social Structure 1. king 2. priests/gov't officials/warriors 3. skilled craftsmen, merchants, traders, & scribes 4. farmers and unskilled laborers (peasants) 5. slaves - placed into class based on your job in society - scribes only group with "social mobility"
The Akkadian Empire - World's 1st empire - Famous for Steles (3D sculptures) like Victory Stele & Hammurabi's - Ruled by King Sargon, with his powerful army & smart political strategies
The Babylonian Empire - Hammurabi wrote his Code of Laws which brought order & unified the empire. - Great place to be a woman or a slave because they had more rights than in other places - Built roads & created a postal service.
The Assyrian Empire - Ashurbanipal - Horses with war chariots, iron weapons, bow/arrow, battering ram & siege towers to lay siege to a city (camp outside & attack over and over until the city falls). - Empire was the largest of all 4, became too large to protect borders
The Neo Babylonian - Nebuchadrezzar II fortified capital with inner & outer walls, created towers for archers, draw bridges & dug moat - Created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his Persian wife - Advancements in math & astronomy (sundial) -Conquered by Persia
Surplus (context) - With their _____________ of wheat and barley, Mesopotamians were able to get luxury goods like gold, silver and gems for their beautiful jewelry.
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