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Unit III Mesopotamia

Study Guide

Fertile Crescent ________ is a region of fertile, well-watered land in the Middle East from the Persian Gulf, up the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, down the eastern shores of Mediterranean Sea to the Nile River World's oldest neolithic (farming) cities developed here
Mesopotamia ____________was a good area for growing crops because the rivers flooded and deposited rich nutrient-rich soil called silt ____________means "land between the rivers"; a river valley in the Fertile Crescent, present day Iraq
Drought _________ is a LONG period of dry weather that may cause crop failure and ultimately a famine
Famine ________ is a widespread lack of food, causing people to starve to death
Surplus An extra supply of something (a resource) like food, cloth, tools, or seeds that can be used to trade/barter with is called a ______________
Barter A trade of one resource for another without the use of money
Sumer _______ is a region on the plains between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, on the coast of the Persian Gulf, where the first farmers lived after moving out of the Zagros Mountains
City-State A walled-city that has its own government (which were kings aka monarchs) and the farmland surrounding it is called a _________
Ziggurat A ______________ is a Mesopotamian temple that could be found in the center of each major city-state Each city's patron god or goddess was believed to sleep at the top each night Wealthy families lived nearer to it
Cuneiform __________ is the world's first system of writing, created by the Sumerians Originally created to record business deals and evolved into a more complex system capable of writing epic poems or stories like, "Gilgamesh" Name means "wedge shaped"
Babylon ___ is a city-state slightly north of Sumer, that was famous for its hanging gardens Was capital of two important but short empires.
Hammurabi ___ is the King of Babylonia, famous for his legal system which punished you for crimes committed based on your social class. "Eye for an eye justice" Also created a postal service AND a system of roads throughout his empire
Code of Hammurabi ___ is one of the oldest written system of law Punishments were based on your social class. Poorer people received more severe punishments Designed to unite the kings new empire and to control the behavior of his people influenced today's laws
Judaism ____ is the world's first monotheistic religion developed by shepherds from Sumer, including Abraham Abraham's teachings created Judaism, and eventually Christianity & Islam
Abraham ___ is the Hebrew leader who took his people from Sumer (Ur) to Canaan and created the world's first monotheistic religion, Judaism His teachings also inspire Christianity and Islam
Canaan ___ is the region settled by the ancient Hebrews, where present day Israel is. Both Abraham and then Moses led the Jewish people here
Moses ___ is the ancient Hebrew leader who led the Jews from slavery in Egypt to freedom in Jerusalem According to the Torah and Bible, he received the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai
Mount Sinai ____ is a mountain just north of the Red Sea where the ancient Hebrews lived after fleeing Egypt and before settling in Jerusalem Where Moses received the 10 Commandments
The 10 Commandments The laws that became the foundation of Jewish (and then later Christian) belief and behavior are known as _______________
Polytheism ___ is a religion that believes there are many gods Everyone (Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans) was polytheistic until Abraham invents Judaism, the first monotheistic religion
Monotheism ___ is a religion that believes there is only one God Judaism is the first, but inspires many others including Christianity and Islam
Jerusalem __ is the modern capital city in Israel, and ancient capital from which early Hebrew kings ruled
How did the resource of water and the need for irrigation affect the growth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent? fresh water & irrigation technologies allowed farming of crops, which led to a stable food supply (surplus of food) because irrigation systems needed constant maintenance, people started working together which formed larger and larger communities
drought (context) To combat ___________________ , Sumerians created an irrigation system of canals, levees, reservoirs and dams to keep their crops watered.
Famine (context) The Hebrews lived in Canaan until a drought caused a ____________ which forced them to move into Egypt where they were enslaved for hundreds of years
Barter (context) Mesopotamians would trade or _____________with their surplus of wheat and barley for goods they could not produce in their own land such as stone, wood and cloth.
City-state (context) Abraham, the founder or creator of Judaism, was from the Sumerian city-state of Ur
Ziggurat (context) Only the priest was allowed at the top of the city-state's _________ to worship and provide offerings.
Cuneiform (context) Sumerians were the first to invent__________________ to keep written records, which was so awesome, it was adopted by every empire who came after them
Code of Hammurabi (context) An example of the brutality of __________________________ was that if you were caught stealing from someone's burning home instead of putting it out, you would be thrown into the fire.
The Ten Commandments (context) *not on this year's study guide Hebrews believed that following the _____________ would grant them God's blessing and protection.
Judaism (context) ____________________ is still practiced by approximately 15 million people around the world today.
Sargon _____ was king who founded Akkadian Empire Famous for his battle formation of shield holders in front and spears sticking out from behind Also knocked down city walls & replaced conquered leaders w/ loyal friends Sons inherited power after death
Hammurabi ___ Was King of the city-state of Babylon, who is famous for his set of laws known as Hammurabi's Code Also famous for inventing a postal service and a system of roads
Nebuchadrezzar II ___ was King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire who expanded the empire by driving the Egyptians out of Syria, and conquering Canaan. captured rebellious Jews and sent them all over his empire as slaves Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his wife
Mesopotamian Social Structure 1. king 2. priests/gov't officials/warriors 3. skilled craftsmen, merchants, traders, & scribes 4. farmers and unskilled laborers (peasants) 5. slaves placed into class based on your job in society scribes are only group with "social mobility"
The Akkadian Empire World's 1st empire Famous for Steles (3D sculptures) like Victory Stele ruled by King Sargon, with his powerful army & smart political strategies Collected tributes ($$$) from the people they conquered
The Babylonian Empire Hammurabi wrote his Code of Laws which brought order & unified the empire. Great place to be a woman or a slave because they had more rights than in other places Built roads & created the postal service.
The Assyrian Empire Amazing fighters who used horses with war chariots, iron weapons, bow/arrow, battering rams & siege towers to lay siege to a city (attack over and over until the city falls). Empire was the largest of all 4 and became too large to protect borders
The Neo Babylonian Nebuchadrezzar II fortified capital with inner & outer walls, created towers for archers, & dug moat rebuilt the ziggurat created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his Persian wife who was homesick. Advancements in math & astronomy
Surplus (context) With their _____________ of wheat and barley, Mesopotamians were able to get luxury goods like gold, silver and gems for their amazing jewelry.



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