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Unit III Mesopotamia

Study Guide

Fertile Crescent A region of fertile, well-watered land in the Middle East from the Persian Gulf, up the Tigris and Euphrates, down to the Nile River
Mesopotamia ___________ was a good area for growing crops because rivers flooded and deposited rich soil.
Mesopotamia means "land between the rivers"; a river valley in the Fertile Crescent, present day Iraq
Drought A LONG period of dry weather that may cause famine
Famine A widespread lack of food, causing people to starve to death
Surplus An extra supply of something like food, or tools, or seeds that can be used to trade/barter
Barter A trade of one resource for another without the use of money
Sumer A region in the plains of lower Mesopotamia just North of the Persian Gulf where the first "Mesopotamians" lived after moving out of the Zagros Mountains
City-State A self-governing city and the farmland surrounding it
Ziggurat Mesopotamian temple
Cuneiform The first system of writing, created by the Sumerians
Babylon A city-state slightly north of Sumer, famous for its hanging gardens, capital of both Babylonian and Neo-Babylonian empires
Hammurabi King of Babylonia, famous for his laws which were the first written code of laws
Code of Hammurabi The first written system of laws
Judaism The first monotheistic religion, developed by the ancient Hebrews
Abraham The Hebrew leader who took his people from southern Mesopotamia to Canaan
Canaan The first region settled by the ancient Hebrews
Moses The ancient Hebrew leader who led them from slavery in Egypt to freedom in Jerusalem
Mount Sinai A mountain just north of the Red Sea where the ancient Hebrews lived after fleeing Egypt before settling in Jerusalem. Where Moses received the 10 Commandments.
The 10 Commandments The laws that became the foundation of Jewish belief and behavior
Polytheism A religion with many gods
Monotheism A religion with only one God
King Solomon A famous Hebrew King, who is famous for his incredible wisdom
Jerusalem A major city in Israel, and ancient capital from which early Hebrew kings ruled
How did the resource of water and the need for irrigation affect the growth of civilization in the Fertile Crescent? - contributed to the growth of civilization because it allowed for the farming of crops, which led to a steady surplus of food. - provided a steady source of drinking/bathing water for people and animals. - Water also created early communities becau
Sumerians The created _____________ irrigation systems with levees, canals, dams and reservoirs.
surplus The development of irrigation led to better farming techniques creating a _____________ of crops.
drought To combat ___________________ between the two rivers, Sumerians created an irrigation system of canals, levees and dams to keep their crops watered.
famine The Hebrews lived in Canaan until a ____________ struck and caused them to leave in search of food.
Identify the Seven Characteristics of Civilization and give specific examples for each one from the Mesopotamian Society to prove they were civilized. 1. Social Structure 2. Writing 3. Arts 4. Government 5. Stable Food Supply 6. Technology 7. Religion
List four problems and four solutions the Mesopotamians faced and conquered? (page 6) 1. Problem: Enough food could not be produced in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains. Solution: People moved out of the foothills and onto the plains 2. Problem: There was uncontrolled water supply on the plains. Solution: The Sumerians created. pg. 7
Abraham _____________ was the first leader of the Hebrew people, leading them through the Fertile Crescent into Canaan.
Moses _____________ led the Hebrews out of slavery out of Egypt.
barter Mesopotamian merchants _____________ for goods they could not produce in their own land such wool, wood and grain.
city-state Nippur was a _____________ in Sumer that worshipped the wind god.
Ziggurat The _________ of Ur is the only recreation of the Sumerian temple structure today.
Cuneiform Sumerians were the first to use__________________ to keep written records, and this form of writing was adopted by the Akkadians, Assyrians and Babylonians.
Code of Hammurabi __________________________ is 282 laws written to preserve order and unify the Babylonian Empire.
The Ten Commandments Hebrews believed that following the _____________ would grant them God's blessing and protection.
Judaism ____________________ is still practiced by approximately 15 million people worldwide.
Sargon Warrior who found the Akkadian Empire and so became the first ruler of the an empire in the Fertile Crescent.
Hammurabi King of the city-state of Babylon, who is famous for his set of laws known as the Hammurabi's code
Nebuchadrezzar II King of the Neo-Babylonian Empire who expanded the empire by driving out the Egyptians out of Syria, conquered Canaan and took the rebel Hebrews captive.
What are the Social Classes of Mesopotamia? 1. king 2. priests scribes 3. skilled craftsmen, merchants, and traders, 4. farmers and laborers 5. slaves
The Akkadian Empire World's 1st empire & ruled by King Sargon, with his powerful army in tight formations with shields and spears. Appointed loyal governors & had his sons take over after he died. Collected tributes from the people he conquered. Steles (3D sculptures)
The Babylonian Empire Hammurabi wrote his Code of Laws which brought order & unified the empire. Punishments were harsh ("eye for an eye") where penalty fit the crime. Built roads & created the postal service. Great place to be a woman or a slave because they had many rights.
The Assyrian Empire Cruel fighters who used horses with war chariots, iron weapons, battering rams & moveable towers to lay siege to a city (attack over and over until the city falls). Capital city was Nineveh. Empire was the largest of all 4 and too large to protect
The Neo Babylonian Nebuchadrezzar II built inner & outer city walls, created towers for archers, dug moat, rebuilt the ziggurat, created the Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his Persian wife who was homesick. Advancements in math & astronomy (1st sundial)