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U.S. History Sem. 1

Final Study Guide Flashcards

ObjectiveDescription
1. The Compromise of 1850. This was a package of five bills passed in the U.S. in 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War.
2. Manifest Destiny The 19th century belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and into Mexican Territory.
3. The Gold Rush The United States quickly benefited from its territories when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in the California Seirra Nevada Mountains.
4. Monroe Doctrine A policy of U.S. opposition to any European interference in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere, announced by President Monroe in 1823.
5. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, added in 1791 and consisting of a formal list of Citizens' rights and freedom.
6. Articles of Confederation A document adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1777 and finally approved by the states in 1781, that outlined the form of government of the new United States.
7. Life in the 1800s During the late 1800s, cities changed and grew, while education, leisure time activities, and the arts reflected those changing times.
8. Farm Life in the 1920s During WW1 US farmers had made record profits, they had been able to supply Britain and France with food on a regular basis. Britain relied on imports of foreign food to feed its population and when the Germans began to sink merchant ships in 1917.
9. Imperialism The policy of extending a nations authority over other countries by economic, political, or military means.
10. Gilded Age During those years, America's economy did grow at an extraordinary rate, generating unprecedented levels of wealth. Railroads, and soon telephone lines, stretched across the country,this created new opp. for many people.
11. Social Gospel Movement A 19th century reform movement based on the belief that Christians have a responsibility to help improve working conditions and alleviate poverty.
12. Trail of Tears The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory in 1838-1840, with thousands of the Cherokee dying on the way.
13. Tammany Hall Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall political machine amounted to a corrupt ring of thieves stealing public tax money.
14. Political Corruption of the 1800s Political machines used illegal tactics to maintain control, buying voter support and resorting to election fraud.
15. Americanization Movement Between 1890 and 1920, millions of people immigrated to the United States from eastern and southern Europe. Many native-born Americans viewed the new immigrants as a threat to the American way
16. Seneca Falls Convention A women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848.
17. Age of Enlightenment The main ideas of the enlightenment were to abolish serfdom, centralize government, give people more freedom, and to have all religions treated equal.
18. Industrialization The Industrial Revolution' refers to a period of massive economic, technological, social and cultural change which affected humans to such an extent that it's often compared to the change from hunter-gathering to farming.
19. Fourteen Points The principals making up President Woodrow Wilson's plan for World Peace following World War I.
20. Great Compromise The Great Compromise of 1787 is an event of great importance in the US history as it laid the foundation of the present day structure of the US Congress.
21. Muckcrakers Journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century became known as the Muckrackers.
22. Paparazzi Italian, from Paparazzo, surname of such a photographer in the film La dolce vita (1959) by Federico Fellini
23. Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
24. John Locke John Locke FRS, widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers
25. Magna Carta The Magna Carta was signed in June 1215 between the barons of Medieval England and King John.The document was a series of written promises between the king and his subjects that he, the king, would govern England and deal with its people according to law.
26. Hero Journalists Advances in printing led to more job opportunities and one of them being journalism- people were exercising their right of press and some were putting their lives on the line to deliver news to people and to inform them of the truth.
27. Advantages of the South in Civil War Their advantages included "King Cotton", first-rate generals, and highly motivated solders.
28. Advantages of the North in the Civil War They enjoyed enormous resources over the south- more people, more factories, greater food production, and a more extensive railroad system.
29. Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States. He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence.
30. 18th Amendment "The 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibited the manufacture, sale, transport, import, or export of alcoholic beverages. Upon ratification of the amendment by the states, Congress voted its approval in October 1919.
31. 19th Amendment The 19th Amendment guarantees American women the right to vote. Beginning in the mid-19th century, woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered radical change.
32. 21st Amendment The Twenty-first Amendment (Amendment XXI) to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol on January 17, 1920.
33. Volstead Act Volstead Act, formally National Prohibition Act, U.S. law enacted in 1919 (and taking effect in 1920) to provide enforcement for the Eighteenth Amendment, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
34. Scopes Trial The Scopes trial was a fight over evolution and the role of science and religion in public schools and in American society.
35. Stamp Act It was a law in 1765 which Parliament established the first direct taxation of goods and services within the British colonies in North America.
36. Intolerable Acts In 1774, Parliament proposed a series of measures which they called the Intolerable Acts, it shut down the Boston Harbor, authorized British commanders to house soldiers inn vacant private homes and other buildings, and General Thomas became chief.
37. Unjustifiable Acts In American history many acts of cruelty and or unjustified beliefs were acted upon. Some of these events were led by citizens and in some cases, such as the case of Andrew Jackson, led by presidents.
38. Boston Tea Party It was the dumping of 18,000 pounds of tea into Boston Harbor by colonists in 1773 to protest the tea act.
39. Checks and Balances This was the provisions in the US Constitution that prevent any branch of the US government from dominating the other two branches.
40. Supreme Law of the Land The supreme law of the land defined as in the constitution is the actual laws within the costutituion of the United States itself. The supreme law of the land means that no other law within the country of the US trumps the laws of the Constitution.
41. Federal Vs. State Powers Federal Laws vs. State Laws. Federal laws, or statutes, are created by the. United States Congress to safeguard the citizens of this country.
42. Reconstruction The period of rebuilding that followed the Civil War, during which the defeated Confederate states were readmitted to the Union.
43. Rehabilitation Rehabilitation, to restore to a condition of good health, ability to work, or the like.
44. Federalism A political system in which a national government and constitute units, such as state governments, share power.
45. Trigger that began WW1 It was directly triggered by the assassination of the Austrian archduke, Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
46. Music Movement in the 1920s The Roaring Twenties was alternatively known as The Jazz Age. This "movement" in which jazz music grew in popularity by immense standards in the U.S., also influenced other parts of the world.
47. Progressive Movement An early 20th century reform movement seeking to return control of the government to the people, to restore economic opportunities, and to correct injustices in American life.
48. Main Ideas of the Federalist Largely influenced by the ideas of Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists succeeded in convincing the Washington administration to assume national and state debts, pass tax laws, and create a central bank.
49. Main Ideas of the Anti-Federalist The Anti-Federalists were concerned with two main things after the failure of the Articles of Confederation; the lack of individual freedom and the potential for the creation of another tyrannical monarchy if the central government gained too much power.
50. Harlem Renaissance A blossoming (c. 1918–37) of African American culture, particularly in the creative arts, and the most influential movement in African American literary history.
51. Allied Powers of WW1 In the beginning (1914) the Allied powers were: 1.Great Britain 2.Russia 3.France . 4.Belgium (Belgium fought alongside the allies, but they remained neutral.
52. Gilded Age Railroads were the major industry, but the factory system, mining, and labor unions also increased in importance. The dominant issues were cultural (especially regarding prohibition, education and ethnic and racial groups), and economics.
53. Year for Women to gain vote Joint Resolution of Congress proposing a constitutional amendment extending the right of suffrage to women, approved June 4, 1919.
54. Prohibition Movement The banning of the manufacture, sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages.
55. Laissez Faire An economic doctrine that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate according to its own economic laws.
56. Robert E. Lee Robert Edward Lee was an American career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.
57. Factors that shaped the North's Development Factors included Religious beliefs, Jamestown and Plymouth, multiplying colonies, fragile frontier existence, a new social order, bonding, imprisonment, and controlling of slaves.
58. What was the North called During the Civil War It was called the Union.
59. Sugar Act The Sugar Act was a trade law enacted by Parliament in 1764 in an attempt to reduce smuggling in the British colonies in North America.
Created by: bogdana7