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U.S. Study Guide

Chapter 21 and 22 Study Guide

Question and TermAnswer and Definition
How did Nixon win support from Southerners in the election of 1968? Appoint conservatives to federal courts, appoint a Southerner to the Supreme Court, oppose busing.
Southern Strategy: He took steps to slow desegregation.
In order to fulfill his campaign promise to fight crime, who did Nixon target? Antiwar Protestors.
New Federalism: Congress passed Revenue-sharing bills.
Revenue-Sharing Bills: Provided federal funds to state and local agencies.
Henry Kissinger: Chosen as Nixon's national security adviser.
Detente: Relaxation of tensions between the U.S. and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
Who was the first American president to visit the Soviet Union? Richard Nixon
Strategic Arms Limitation treaty: Limit nuclear arms, increase trade and the exchange of scientific info.
Enemies List: Named anyone he suspected of being a threat to his presidency.
Why did burglars break into the Watergate Complex? Because to steal campaign information from the Democratic Party Headquarters.
James McCord: Watergate burglar and ex-CIA official.
John Dean: Testified that Mitchell ordered the break in and Nixon was active in its cover-up.
John Mitchell: Accused of ordering the Watergate break-in.
How did Nixon try to avoid turning over the Watergate tapes? By claiming that the tapes would compromise national security.
Executive Privilege: The principle that White House conversations be kept confidential to protect national security.
Spiro Agnew: Vice President under Nixon who resigned for taking bribes.
Gerald Ford: Became Nixon's VP after Spiro Agnew resigned.
Impeach: Officially charge Nixon of presidential misconduct.
Federal Campaign Act Amendments: Limited campaign contributions and set up an independent agency to administer stricter election laws.
Embaro: Stopping of shipping.
What had the U.S. economy become dependent on by the 1970s? Imported oil.
What caused the energy crisis of the 1970s? OPEC price increases and government regulation of oil industry.
Stagflation: Caused by Economic Stagnation and rising prices.
Why did President Ford's approval rating plummet after taking office? Because he granted Nixon a full pardon.
Whip Inflation Now: Voluntary cutbacks on oil and gas consumption.
Who became president after Ford in 1976? Jimmy Carter
Department of Energy: Created to help conserve oil and promote the use of the coal and renewable sources.
What did the two Panama Canal Treaties in 1978 do? Transferred control of the canal from U.S. to Panama.
Camp David Accords: Historic peace treaty between Israel and Egypt.
Busing: Policy that prompted "white flight" to private schools.
Affirmative Action: Called for companies to actively recruit African American employees.
University of California Regents V. Bakke: Schools could use racial criteria as a part of their admissions process but not fixed quotas.
Reverse Discrimination: Claim that qualified white workers were kept from jobs.
Jesse Jackson: Civil Rights leader who founded PUSH.
PUSH: People United to Save Humanity.
Congressional Black Caucus: Formed to represent specific legislative concerns of African Americans.
Declaration of Indian Movement: Called for policies to create greater economic opportunities on reservations.
American Indian Movement: A militant group against assimilation.
Indian Self Determination and Educational Assistance Act: Increased federal funds for Native American education and expanded local control over federal programs.
Architectural Barriers Act: Mandated that new buildings constructed with federal funds be accessible to disabled persons.
Rehabilitation Act Section 504: Stated that no person with a disability shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or service or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Educational for All Handicapped Children Act: Required that all students with disabilities receive a free, appropriate education.
Rachel Carson: Environmentalist who wrote Silent Spring.
Earth Day: April 1970; to focus on the country's environmental concerns.
Environmental Protection Agency: Sets and enforces pollution standards, promotes research, and coordinates anti-pollution activities.
Clean Air Act: Establishes emission standards for factories and automobiles.
Clean Water Act: Restricted the discharge of pollutants into nations lakes and rivers.
Endangered Species Act: Established measures for saving threatened animal species.
Fossil Fuels: Coal, oil and natural gas.
Love Canal: A community built on a toxic waste dump and caused serious health problems to the people who lived there.
Three Mile Island Incident: Leak of radiation at the plant led many to doubt the safety of nuclear energy.
Ronald Reagon: Became president in 1980.
General Beliefs of Liberals: Increase government regulation of businesses, government help disadvantaged, tax wealthy, free speech and privacy.
General Beliefs of Conservatives: Free enterprise, oppose high taxes and government programs that take wealth from rich and give to poor.
Conservatives believed that social problems can be solved through what? Religious faith and private efforts.
Why did some Americans turn towards conservatism during the Cold War? Because liberal ideas were leading the U.S. towards communism.
Sunbelt: Industrial area of the south and west that developed after World War 2.
Proposition 13: California's effort to reduce taxes.
Televangelists: Christian evangelicals who used TV as a means for reaching audiences.
Moral Majority: Referred to those who wanted a shift back to conservative values.
What was Ronald Reagan's job before being elected governor of California? Actor
Monetarists: Believed that too much money in circulation caused inflations and the solution was to raise interest rates.
Supply-Side Economics: Believed that tax cuts would result in business expansion and new jobs.
Reaganomics: Raising interest rates and lowering taxes.
Budget Deficit: Amount by which expenditures exceeds income.
What did Reagan do to control the budget defict? Cut social programs.
Sandra Day O' Connor: First woman on the Supreme Court.
Walter Mondale: Democratic candidate for President in 1984.
Geraldine Ferraro: First woman to run for Vice President for a major party.
Reagan's Foreign Policy: Following "Peace through Strength" idea(military buildup).
Reagan Doctrine: Belief that the U.S. should use guerrilla troops to overthrow pro-Communist governments.
Sandinista: Rebels who overthrew a pro-American dictator in Nicaragua.
Contras: Anti-Sandinista guerrilla army armed by the U.S.
Iran-Contra Scandal: Officials sold weaons to Iran to gain freedom for the American hostages there.
What did investigations into the Iran-Contra Scandal reveal about Reagan's involvement? That he had approved the sale of arms to Iran but did not approve sending money to Contras.
Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars): Called for the development of weapons that could intercept and destroy incoming missiles.
Mikhail Gorbachev: The new leader of the Soviet Union in 1985.
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty: 1st treaty to call for the destruction of nuclear weapons, marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War.
Yuppies: Young urban professionals.
Discount Retailing: New type of retailing that sold large quantities of goods at very low prices.
"Just Say NO!" Began by Nancy Reagan.
MADD: Mother's Against Drunk Driving.
Stonewall Riot: Marked the beginning of the gay activist movement.
George Bush: Took office in 1988.
Perestrokia: Gorbachev's plan for restructuring the Soviet Union's economy.
Glasnost: Gorbachev's plan for openness which allowed more freedom of religion and speech.
Boris Yeltsin: Russian President who outlawed the Communist party in Russia.
Tiananmen Square: Pro-democracy demonstration violently crushed by the Chinese government forces.
Saddam Hussein: Iraqi leader whoses invasion of Kuwait sparked the Persian Gulf War.
Why did the United Nations(and U.S.) go to war in the Persian Gulf? Because Iraq invaded Kuwait.
Operation Desert Storm: Air attack against Iraq followed by ground attack-Bush declared victory and Kuwait was liberated.
Downsizing: Laying off workers and managers to become more efficient.
Capital Gains Tax: Tax paid by businesses and investors when they sell stocks or real estate for a profit.
Grassroots Movement: Groups of people organizing at the local level; put Ross Perot on the ballot in all 50 states.
Bill Clinton: Became president in 1992.
Created by: SimonaSomers