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Immunocompromised

Chapter 30

QuestionAnswer
What are immunocompromised hosts? These are people with one or more defects in their body's defense mechanisms against microbial invaders.
What are the two groups of immunocompromised hosts? 1. defects in the innate defense mechanimsms 2. deficiencies in the adaptive immune response
Describe primary immunodeficiency? These are inherited or occurs by exposure in utero to environmental factors or by other unknown mechanisms.
Give examples of primary immunodeficiency in innate and adaptive immune system? Innate: complement and phagocyte deficiency Adaptive: T and B cell defects and severe combined immunodeficiency.
Describe secondary immunodeficiency? This is due to an underlying disease state or occurs as a result of treatment for a disease.
Give examples of secondary immunodeficiency in innate and adaptive immune system? Innate: burns, trauma, major surgery, catherization, foreign bodies and obstruction adaptive: malnutrition, infectious diseases, neoplasia, irradiation and chemotherapy
Congenital defects in phagocytic cells confer susceptibility for infection. Name a infection/disease? Chronic granulomatous disease
What is chronic granulomatous disease? An inherited failure to synthesize cytochrome b-245 causes a failure to produce ROS intermediates during phagocytosis. The neutropils cannot kill the invading pathogens
Give examples of how treatment can lead to immunosupression? 1. Cytotoxic agents cause leukopenia, or deranged T and B-cell function. 2. Corticosteroids reducse number of lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils 3. Radiotherapy adversely affects the proliferation of lymphoid cells
Why are burn injuries bad? It causes direct damage to the mechanical barries of the body and abnormalities in neutrophil antibacterial function and immune system. Hereby provides a higly nutritious surface for organisms to colonize.
What are the most important pathogens in burn wounds? They are mostly aerobic. Examples: pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus pyogenes
What bacterial species is the most important cause of surgical wound infection and how is it acquired? Staphylococcus Aureus, acquired during surgery or post operationand may originate from the patient or another patient/staff member.
How can urethral catheters cause damage? The disrupt the normal host defences of the urinary tract and allow organisms easy access to the bladder. Organisms are mostly gram - from patients own feces or from periurethral flora.
How can intravenous and peritoneal dialysis catheters cause damage? They breach the integrity of the skin barrier and allow organisms from the skin flora of the patient or hands from the caretaker easy access to deeper sites.
What bacterial species is the most comman cause of infection from intravenous and peritoneal dialysis catheters? Staphylococci are the most common cause of infection, particularly Staphylococcus Epidermidis.
What bacterial species is an important cause of infection of cardiac pacemakers, grafts and CSF shunts Staphylococcus Epidermidis
Created by: Beantha