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Chapter 24

What does the blood-CSF barriers consist of? Endothelium with fenestrations and thightly joined choroid plexus epithelial cells
How are microbes capable to traverse these barriers? 1.growing accross, infecting the cell that comprise the barrier 2. passive transport in intracellular vacuoles 3. carried across by infected white blood cells.
What is the response to invading viruses in CSF? This causes an increase in lymphocytes (mostly T cells), monocytes and slight increase in the CSF.
What is "aseptic" meningitis? Condition that occurs when viruses invade the CSF and the CSF remains clear.
What is the response to invading pyogenic bacteria in the CSF? This a causes a spectacular and rapid increase in polymorphonuclear cells and proteins.
What is "septic" meningitis? Condition that occurs when pyogenic bacteria invade the CSF and the CSF becomes turbid.
Name the three most common bacteria species that cause bacterial meningitis. Haemophilus Influenzae, Neisseria Meningitidis and Streptococcus Pneumoniae
What are the characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis and difference with gonorrhoea? It is a Gram-negative diplococcus, non-spore forming, non-motile, encapsulated and aerobic. It has an additional polysaccharide capsule (antigenic).
What causes meningococcal meningitis and what is his host? Neisseria Meningitidis and infects children and adolescents
Invasion of the meninges is rare, name 3 ways that still makes it possible? 1. people with C5-C9 complement deficiency 2. young children who lost acquired antibodies from their mother. 3. adolescents who have not previously encountered the infecting serotype.
How is Neisseria meningitidis transmitted? From person-to-person through droplets of respiratory or throat secretions, such as kissing, sneezing or coughing on someone and sharing eating or drinking utensils with infected person.
Name the 5 different serotypes of N. meningitidis and where they are most prevalent? B,C,Y predominate in resource-rich countries A and W-135 are common in less developed regions
Are their vaccines available for N. Meningitidis? Yes, but not for the B serotype
What are the treatment strategies for meningococcal meningitis? Antibiotic therapy of penicillin or ampicillin is given. "Kissing-contacts" are given prophylaxis of ciprofloxacin.
What causes Haemophilus meningitis and what is his host? It is caused by Haemophilus Influenzae type b and infect mostly children under 5 years of age.
What are the characteristics of H. Influenzae? It is a Gram-negative coccobacillus, non-motile and aerobic
How many serotypes belong to H.Influenzae and how are they seperated? Unencapsulated strains are common and present in the throat of healthy people. The capsulated type b is a commonly present in the respiratory tract.
Why are little children susceptible to Haemophilus meningitis? Anticapsular antibodies are able to phagocytize the bacteria and kill it, but children do not produce them until age 2-3
Is there prevention and vaccine available for H Meningitis? An H.influenza type b (Hib) vaccine is suitable for children 2months of age and upwards. Kissing-contacts should take prophylaxis of Rifampicin.
What causes Pneumococcal meningitis and what is his host? It is caused by Streptococcus Pneumoniae and infects mostly children <2 years and eldery
What increases the susceptibility to S. Pneumoniae infection? Infection is associated with low levels of antibodies to capsular polysaccharides antigens.
What are the prevention strategies for S. Pneumoniae Heptavalent protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine for children from 2-23 months of age and for children 24-59 months at high risk. 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine is available for children older than 5 years of age.
What causes Listeria monocytogenes meningitis and what is the host? It is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important cause of meningitis in immunocompromised adults (renal transport and cancer patients)
What causes Neonatal meningitis? It is caused by a wide range of bacteria but most frequently by Group B Haemolytic Streptococci (GBS) and E.coli.
How to babies get neonatal meningitis? They can get it via hospital-acquired infections or from an infected mother (vaginal transmission and swallowing of maternal secretions)
Created by: Beantha