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Chlamydia and eye

Chapter 21/25

QuestionAnswer
What are the two forms of chlamydia and what are they adapted for? The elementary body is adapted for extracellular survival and for initiation of infection. The reticulate body is adapted for intracellular multiplication.
What are the three groups of serotypes that chlamydiae can be divided in? 1. A,B,C 2.D - K and 3.L1,L2,L3
What diseases does each group of chlamydia serotype cause? A,B,Ba,C -> Trachoma D-K -> Cervicitis, urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia (in neonates) L1,L2,L3 -> Lymphogranuloma venereum
To which chlamydia bacterial species to these serotype groups belong to? Chlamydia trachomatis
Describe the pathogenesis of Chlamydiae? The EBs bind to receptors on epithelial cells and enter the cells via parasite-induced endocytosis. EBs differentiate into RBs, which multiply and differentiate into EBs. New Ebs are then released too infect other cells.
How does Chlamydiae trachomatis enter the body? Through minute abrasions in the mucosal surface
What is the treatment for chlamydiae? Adults are given doxycycline or azithromycin, since Chlamydiae is not susceptible to beta lactam antibiotics. Babies are given erythromycin.
What is Lymphogranuloma venereum and how is it treated? Lymphogranuloma venereum is a systemic infection involving lymphoid tissue and is treated with doxycycline or erythromycin
How is C.trachomatis transmitted in genital diseases? Sexual transmission via anal, oral or vaginal sex.
How is C.trachomatis transmitted in eye diseases. By contact, with contaminated flies, fingers and towels.
What is ocular promiscuity? Chlamydial infection is frequently spread from one conjunctiva to another and this can be referred to as ‘ocular promiscuity’.
How can C. trachomatis cause eye and lung disease in babies? The conjunctiva or lungs of a newborn infant may become infected after passage down an infected birth canal.
How can chlamydia conjunctivitis be prevented and is there a vaccine? By improvements in standards of hygiene. There is still no vaccine.
Name 3 other bacteria that can cause conjuctivitis? Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
Name two viruses that could cause a conjunctival infections? Varicella-Zoster virus and Herpes Simplex Virus.
What is the common virus type that causes viral conjunctivitis? Overall, viral conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by adenovirus infections.
What are the structural and biological characteristics of Chlamydiae? Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular, aerobic Gram-negative bacterium. They are typically coccoid or rod-shaped.
Describe important virulence factors of Chlamydia? Its ability to grow and reproduce inside the host contributes to its virulence. C. trachomatis has a unique cell wall structure which enables it to inhibit phagolysosome fusion within phagocytes.
What are the immune escape mechanism(s)for Chlamydia?
Is there any antibiotic resistance to Chlamydia and how is this transmitted? Chlamydiae is passive resistant to Beta-lactams because the cell walls lacks peptidoglycan and this bacterial species is intracellular
What is the cell/tissue tropism of Chlamydia? The primary tissue tropism for Chlamydia is epithelial cells
Created by: Beantha