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7 History Ch. 6

Terms of Chapter 6

TermDefinition
Patriot supporter of the Revolution
Loyalist supporter of England
Common Sense pamphlet written by Thomas Paine, urging readers to support Patriots
Olive Branch Petition America's last attempt for peace to repeal the Intolerable Acts
Declaration of Independence document that separated America from Britain, started the war
Thomas Jefferson FF, author of the Declaration of the Independence, of Virginia
George Washington FF, commander of US Continental army, brave and smart, Virginian
Battle of Bunker Hill 1775, Breed's Hill, first major battle of the Revolution
Battle of Saratoga 1777, the first major American victory in the Revolution, which ended the British threat to New England
John Burgoyne English general, surrendered 5,000 men at Saratoga
African Americans in the War British offered them freedom, increased British numbers
Charles Cornwallis British general, surrendered at Yorktown in 1781
Nathaniel Greene American commander of the Continental Army in the South, of Rhode Island
Daniel Morgan clever American general of Virginia, worked with Greene
Battle of Cowpens 1781, Morgan led Americans to victory, SC, was won to unconventional tactics
Battle of Yorktown 1781, Cornwallis is trapped by Washington and French Navy, surrenders
Foreign Aid French navy, Spaniards (Galvez of Louisiana)
Treaty of Paris 1783, America is independent, extended from Atlantic Ocean to Miss. River. Great Lakes to Florida, Americans agreed to ask the state legislature to pay Loyalists for property they lost in the war, Spain gets Florida back, France did not get Canada back
The Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen, a group of Vermonters who strive for War
Patriot advantages during the War Owned rifles, good shot, brilliant commander, determined to defend their homes
British advantages during the War Highly trained, experienced soldiers, best Navy in the world, many colonists supported the British
How did Americans seize control of Boston in March of 1776? They were returned the cannons the Green Mountain Boys won and set them up at Dorchester Heights and overtook Boston; led by George Washington
Blockade shutting of a port to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
Mercenary troops for hire
Radical someone who tries to make drastic changes
Traitor a person who betrays his or her country
The Declaration of Independence the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain
Natural Rights the rights that belong to all people from birth
What were the THREE main ideas of the Declaration of Independence? Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness
What THREE major decisions did the Continental Congress make during this time? Olive Branch Petition, make a Continental Army, declare independence
The Battle of Long Island about 1,400 Americans casualties, Washington was easily defeated by Howe, able to escape from New York to New Jersey 19
The Battle of Trenton a surprise attack led by Washington on Christmas night, penetrating the Hessian troops, redeeming victory
The Battle of Princeton tricking the British into thinking they were in Trenton, fled to Princeton and attacked from behind
The Battle of Brandywine British snuck around the Americans’ right flank, victoriously attacking, Howe wins to capture Philadelphia
Ally a state formally cooperating with another for a military or other purpose, typically by treaty
Washington’s enlistment policy regarding African Americans. Washington’s enlistment policy was only free African Americans could join
Bernardo de Galvez governor of Louisiana (southwest), Spanish leader that helped the Americans
John Paul Jones Navy captain who captured Serapis at the North Sea
Why did British General Clinton focus on the South? more Loyalists in the South to recruit
French on the way when French are crossing the ocean, Morgan and Greene burn time through splitting army and using guerlilla warfare (cat in mouse) chased by Cornwallis
How did geography help the Americans’ strategy? Americans knew the land, could develop strategies on the geography, especially at the Battle of Cowpens
The Battle of Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, when Greene and Morgan combine forces against the British,technically it is a British victory, but they lose more men
Guerilla tactics “little war”, using little skirmishes of ambush and snipers instead of organized battle, cat and mouse, hit and run
Failure of Britain’s southern strategy superior generals and guerilla warfare, did not know the land as well as the Americans
French help at Yorktown French army blocks British escape at Yorktown Peninsula, Cornwallis disregarded Clinton, Clinton doesn’t help Cornwallis
Created by: tait.thorne5