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ChapterFive

IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software

QuestionAnswer
Open source operating system for mobile devices developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. Currently the most popular smartphone operating system worldwide. Android
Software that handles all application operations between browser-based computers and a company's back-end business applications or databases. application server
Programs written for a specific application to perform functions specified by end users. application software
Small pieces of software that run on the Internet, on a computer, or on a mobile phone and are generally delivered over the Internet. apps
Effort to develop systems that can manage themselves without user intervention. autonomic computing
A powerful programming language with tight control and efficiency of execution; is portable across different microprocessors and is used primarily with PCs. C
A newer version of C that has all the capabilities of C plus additional features for working with software objects. C++
The process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated to ensure that adequate computing resources are available for work of different priorities and that the firm has enough computing power for its current and future needs. capacity planning
Read-only optical disk storage used for imaging, reference, and database applications with massive amounts of unchanging data and for multimedia. CD-ROM (CD-ReWritable)
Processing that is accomplished by one large central computer. centralized processing
Google's lighweight computer operating system for users who do most of their computing on the Internet; runs on computers ranging from netbooks to desktop computers. Chrome OS
Thr user point-of-entry for the required function in client-server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer. client
A model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network, assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function. client/server computing
Web-based applications that are stored on remote servers and accessed via the "cloud" of the Internet using a standard Web browser. cloud computing
Facility housing computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications, storage and security systems and backup power supplies. data center
Software used for creating and manipulating lists, creating files and databases to store data, and combining information for reports. data management software
High-capacity optical storage medium that can store full-length videos and large amounts of data. digital video disk (DVD)
The distribution of computer processing work among multiple computers linked by a communications network. distributed processing
A more powerful and flexible markup language than hypertext markup language (HTML) for Web pages. Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Programming languages that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages. fourth-generation languages
This online suite includes tools for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, calendar, and e-mail, and is available for free or as a more full-featured Google Apps for Business edition charing businesses $50 per year. Google Apps
The part of an operating system users interact with that uses graphic icons and the computer mouse to issue commands and make selections. graphical user interface (GUI)
Practices and technologies for producing, using, and disposing of computers and associated devices to minimize impact on the environment. green computing
Applying the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem. grid computing
Next evolution of HTML, which will make it possible to embed images, video, and audio directly into a document without using add-on software. HTML5
Page description language for creating Web pages and other hypermedia documents. hypertext markup language (HTML)
Device which gathers data and converts them into electronic form for use by the computer. input devices
An operating system-independently, processor-independent, object-oriented programming language that has become a leading interactive programming environment for the Web. Java
Systems that has been in existence for a long time and that continue to be used to avoid the high cost of replacing or redesigning them. legacy systems
Reliable and compactly designed operating system that is an open-source offshoot of UNIX and that can be run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at a very low cost. Linux
A secondary storage medium in which data are stored by means of magnetized spots on a hard or floppy disk. magnetic disk
Inexpensive, older secondary-storage medium in which large volumes of information are stored sequentially by means of magnetized and nonmagnetized spots on tape. magnetic tape
Largest category of computer, used for major business processing. mainframe
Composite software applications that depend on high-speed networks, universal communication standards, and open source code and are intended to be greater than the sum of their parts. mashups
Integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks. multicore processor
Interface that features the use of one or more finger gestures to manipulate lists or objects on a screen without using a mouse or keyboard. multitouch
Technology that builds structures and processes based on the manipulatuion of individual atoms and molecules. nanotechnology
Client/server arrangement which balances the work of the entire network over multiple levels of servers. n-tier client/server architecture
Software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data. object
The latest version of Microsoft desktop software suite with capabilities for supporting collaborative work on the Web or incorporating information from the Web into documents. Office 2010
Outsourcing systems development work or maintenance of existing systems to external vendors in another country. offshore software outsourcing
Firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers, investing just enough to handle average processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as they need. Also called utility computing. on-demand computing
Software that provides free access to its programming code, allowing users to modify the program code to make improvements or fix errors. open source software
The system software that manages and controls the activities of the computer. operating system
Devices that display data after they have been processed. output devices
The practice of contracting computer center operations, telecommunications networks, or applications development to external vendors. outsourcing
Small desktop or portable computer. personal computer (PC)
software to create professional-quality graphics presentations that can incorporate charts, sound, animation, photos, and video clips. presentation graphics software
Propriety network or data center that ties together servers, storage networks, data, and applications as a set of virtualized services that are shared by users inside a company. private cloud
Cloud maintained by an external service provider, accessed though the Internet, and available to the general public. public cloud
Software tools that provide immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined. query languages
Services for delivering and providing access to software remotely as a Web-based service. SaaS (Software as a Service)
The ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger numbers of users without breaking down. scalability
Computer specifically optimized to provide software and other recourses to other computers over a network. server
Formal contract between customers and their service providers that defines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and the level of service expected by the customer. service level agreement
Software architecture of a firm built on collection of software programs that communicate with each other to preform assigned tasks to create a working software application. service-oriented architecture
A prewritten, precoded, commercially available set of programs that eliminates the need to write software programs for certain functions. software package
Software displaying data in a grid of columns and rows, with the capability of easily recalculating numerical data. spreadsheet software
High speed networks dedicated to storage that connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays so they can be shared by multiple servers. storage area networks (SANs)
Highly sophisticated and powerful computer that can preform very complex computations extremely rapidly. supercomputer
Generalized programs that manage the computer's resources, such as the central processor, communications links, and peripheral devices. system software
Mobile handheld computer that is larger than a mobile phone, and operated primarily by touching a flat touch screen. tablet computer
Designated the total cost of owning technology resources, including initial purchase costs, the cost of hardware and software upgrades, maintenance, technical support, and training. total cost of ownership (TCO)
Operating systems for all types of computers, which is machine independent and supports multiuser processing, multitasking, and networking. Used in high-end workstations and servers. UNIX
Presenting a set of computing resources so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location. virtualization
A widely used programming tool and environment for creating applications that run on Microsoft Windows operating systems. visual basic
Allows users to manipulate graphic or iconic elements to create programs. visual programming language
easy-to-use software tool for accessing the World Wide Web and the Internet. Web browsers
Company with large Web server computers to maintain the websites of fee-paying subscribers. Web hosting service
Software that manages requests for Web pages on the computer where they are stored and that delivers the page to the user's computer. Web server
Set of universal standards using Internet technology for integrating different applications from different sources without time-consuming custom coding. Used for linking systems of different organizations or for linking disparate systems within the same o Web services
The successor of Microsoft Windows Vista operating system released in 2009. Windows 7
Most recent Windows operating system. Windows 8
Software for electronically creating, editing, formatting, and printing documents. word processing software
Desktop computer with powerful graphics and mathematical capabilities and the ability to preform several complicated tasks at once. workstation
The latest Windows client version Windows 10
use an array of semiconductors organized as a very fast internal disk drive solid state drives
separates the software for managing data storage from storage hardware software defined storage
uses the principles of quantum physics to represent data and perform operation on these data quantum computing
Microsoft now offers a hosted cloud version of its productivity and collaboration tools as a subscription service called office 365 Office 365
monitors, manages and secures mobile devices that are deployed across multiple mobile service providers and across multiple mobile operating systems used in the organization mobile device management
apples mobile operating system iOS
Firms use their own infrastructure for more essential core activities and adopt public cloud for less critical systems or additional processing capacity. Hybrid cloud
IT infrastructure? 1. Computer Hardware 2. Computer Software 3. Data Management Technology 4. Networking and Telecommunication Technology 5. Technology Services
Types of computers? 1. Personal Computer 2. Workstation 3. Server Computer 4. Mainframe 5. Super Computer 6. Grid Computing
Secondary Storage Technology? 1. Magnetic Disks 2. Solid State Drives 3. Optical Discs 4. Magnetic Tape 5. Storage area networks
Essential characteristics of Cloud Computing 1. On demand self-service 2. Ubiquitous network access 3. Location independent resource pooling 4. Rapid elasticity 5. Measured service 6. Infrastructure as a service 7. Software as a service 8. Platform as a service
What are the principal issues in managing hardware and software technology 1. Capacity planning and scalability 2. Total cost of ownership of technology assets 3. Using technology service providers 4. Managing Mobile platforms 5. Managing software localization for global business
Created by: TroyIS3310