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Patho Exam #2

QuestionAnswer
What is NEOPLASIA? New Growth (both good and bad)
What is a NEOPLASM? SOLID new growth
What is a TUMOR? Undefined Solid Mass
What is ONCOLOGY? The Study of Masses
What is a BENIGN NEOPLASM? Solid new growth that can NOT invade
What is a MALIGNANT NEOPLASM/CANCER? Solid new growth with capability of invasion
What is Differentiation? degree of resemblance of a tissue to the tissue of origin.
what are the 3 types of differentiation? Well Differentiated neoplasm Poorly Differentiated neoplasm Undifferentiated/Anaplastic neoplasm
What is a Well-Differentiated Neoplasm? specialized cells, resembles tissue of origin, Generally BENIGN
What is a Poorly-Differentiated Neoplasm? Does not resemble tissue of origin, Tend to be MALIGNANT
What is an example of an Undifferentiated/Anaplastic Neoplasm? Stem Cells
What are the clinical implications of a patient with a Well-differentiated Neoplasm? Patient is more likely to survive for a longer period of time or may be completely cured with treatment
What are the clinical implications of a patient with an Anaplastic Neoplasm? Patient is more likely to experience a lower survival rate and/or increased risk of mortality.
Characteristics of ANAPLASIA? cellular pleomorphism and/or tumor giant cells, hyperchromatism of nuclei, prominent nucleolus, frequency of mitoses, presence of giant and bizarre appearing nuclei(nuclear pleomorphism), disorientation of cells/loss of architecture, metastasis
What are the two components of all Neoplasms? Parenchyma and supportive stroma
What is the Parenchyma? the proliferating neoplastic cells (by which the tumor is named)
What is the Supportive Stroma? fibrous connective tissue and blood vessels
What if the stroma is minimal,how will the neoplasm present? Soft and fleshy. Example = Breast cancer
What if the stroma is in abundance, how will the neoplasm present? dense and hard. Also Known As DESMOPLASIA
What are the types of tissues that "normally" proliferate under "normal" conditions? Epithelial Linings, Glandular Linings, skin, ovary and testis, bone marrow, myoblasts, feta tissues, organ hypertrophy, wound healing
What are Epithelial Linings that "normally" proliferate under "normal" conditions? Respiratory Epithelium, Gastro-Intestinal Lining, Genito-Urinary Lining
What are Glandular Linings that "normally" proliferate under "normal" conditions? Mammary Gland
What are the 2 types of neoplasias of EPITHELIAL ORIGIN? Non-Glandular and Glandular
What is a Benign Non-glandular Neoplasia of Epithelial Origin? Epithelioma and Papilloma
What is a Malignant Non-glandular Neoplasia of Epithelial Origin? Carcinoma
What is a Benign Glandular Neoplasia of Epithelial Origin? Adenoma
What is a Malignant Glandular Neoplasia of Epithelial Origin? Adenocarcinoma
What are the types of neoplasias of MESENCHYMAL ORIGIN? fibrous tissue, fat, vascular tissue, smooth muscle, striated muscle, bone, cartilage
What is a Benign neoplasia from fibrous tissue of Mesenchymal origin? FibrOMA
What is a Benign neoplasia from Fat of Mesenchymal Origin? LipOMA
What is a benign neoplasia from Vascular Tissue of Mesenchymal origin? AngiOMA
What is a Benign neoplasia from Smooth Muscle of Mesenchymal origin? LeiomyOMA
What is a Benign neoplasia from Striated Muscle of Mesechymal Origin? RhabdomyOMA
What is a Benign neoplasia from Bone of Mesenchymal Origin? OsteOMA
What is a Benign neoplasia from Cartilage of Mesenchymal Origin? ChondrOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Fibrous Tissue of Mesenchymal Origin? FibroSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Fat of Mesenchymal Origin? LipoSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from VAscular Tissue of Mesenchymal Origin? AngioSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Smooth Muscle of Mesenchymal Origin? LeiomyoSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Striated Muscle of Mesenchymal Origin? RhabdomyoSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Bone of Mesenchymal Origin? OsteoSARCOMA
What is a Malignant neoplasia from Cartilage of Mesenchymal Origin? ChondroSARCOMA
What are the Tissue's of Origin for Hematopoietic and Immune System Neoplasms? Lymphoid Tissue, Lymphocytes, Thymus, Granulocytes, Plasma Cells, Erythrocytes
What is a Benign neoplasm of Lymphoid Tissue? Infectious Mononucleosis
What is a Benign neoplasm of Lymphocytes? Lymphoproliferative diseases
What is a Benign neoplasm of the Thymus? Thymoma
What is a Benign neoplasm of Granulocytes? Granulocytosis
What is a Benign neoplasm of Erythrocytes? Polycythemia Vera
What is a Malignant neoplasm of Lymphoid Tissue? Lymphoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm of Lymphocytes? Lymphocytic Leukemia
What is a Malignant neoplasm of the Thymus? Thymoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm of Granulocytes? Myelogenous Leukemia (Granulocytic Leukemia)
What is a Malignant neoplasm of Plasma Cells? Multiple Myeloma
What is a Malignant neoplasm of Erythrocytes? Erythroleukemia
What are the Tissue's of Origin for Nervous System Neoplasms? Brain Glial Cells, Meninges, Neurons, Adrenal Medulla, Retina
What is a Benign neoplasm for Brain Glial Cells? Astrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma
What is a Benign neoplasm for Meninges? Meningioma
What is a Benign neoplasm for Neurons? Ganglioneuroma
What is a Benign neoplasm for the Adrenal Medulla? Pheochromocytoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm for the Brain Glial Cells? Gliobastoma Multiforme
What is a Malignant neoplasm for Meninges? Meningeal Sarcoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm for Neurons? Neuroblastoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm for the Adrenal Medulla? Pheochromocytoma
What is a Malignant neoplasm for the Retina? Retinoblastoma
What is Melanoma? Is it Malignant or Benign? It is a Malignancy of Melanocytes in Skin. It is ALWAYS MALIGNANT
What is Seminoma? Is it Malignant or Benign? It is Testicular Cancer. It is MALIGNANT.
Where does Lymphoma arise from? Is it Malignant or Benign? Arises from Lymph Nodes. It is ALWAYS MALIGNANT.
Where does a Dermoid Cyst/Teratoma originate from? Is it Malignant or Benign? It is a tumor of mixed genetic origin. If it is Mature, it is Benign. If it is Immature, it is Malignant.
What is Leukemia? Is it Malignant or Benign? It is a Malignancy of Bone Marrow. It is ALWAYS MALIGNANT.
What are the Characteristics of a BENIGN NEOPLASM? Generally Encapsulated, Non-invasive, Well differentiation, Few mitotic figures, flow growth or no net, little anaplasia, non-metastatic
What are the Characteristics of a MALIGNANT NEOPLASM? non-encapsulated, invasive, poorly differentiated, mitotic figures common, can have rapid growth, relatively anaplastic, metastatic
What is INVASION? the infiltration and destruction of surrounding(local) tissue by a neoplasm.
Why are Benign neoplasms Non-Invasive? Because they are Encapsulated. The Encapsulation tends to contain the benign neoplasm as a discrete and easily movable mass.
What is Metastasis? the invasive nature of neoplasms which allows them to penetrate into blood vessels, lymphatics, and body cavities, thus providing the opportunity for SPREAD OF THE NEOPLASM TO A DISTANT ANATOMICAL TERRITORY
Is Metastasis associated with a Malignant or Benign neoplasm? MALIGNANT! benign neoplasms do not metastasize
What does the presence of Metastatic Spread say about the Patients chances of Cure? Metastasis strongly reduces the possibility of cure
What is the strongest predictor of Survivability? METASTASIS
What are the Pathways of Metastatic Spread? Direct Seeding, Lymphatic Spread, Hematogenous Spread
What will be seen on an examination of tissue associated with Neoplastic Disease? Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia, Tumor Giant cells
What is the sequence of events, in regards to tissue changes, in the evolution of a neoplasia of epithelial cell origin? Hyperplasia --> Dysplasia --> Carcinoma in Situ --> Malignant Neoplasia
What are the Local Effects associated with Benign and Malignant Neoplasias? (What is seen clinically) Swelling, Irritation, Blood vessel damage (ulcerations, hemorrhage, hematuria, melena, thrombosis, necrosis, secondary infections), visceral damage, compromised organ function
What is meant by Indigenous? hormone that is NATIVE to the tissue of origin (Ex. Pancreatic neoplasm secretes insulin)
What are the Systemic Effects associated with Benign Neoplasms? indigenous hormone secretion
What is meant by Ectopic? hormone that is not normally produced by that tissue. (Ex. lung neoplasm secretes ACTH)
What are the systemic effects associated with Malignant neoplasms? Indigenous or Ectopic hormone production.
What is a Paraneoplastic Syndrome? Symptoms that "mask" the underlying neoplasm. (Ex. Cushing's like pathology)
What is Cachexia? It is MALIGNANT! Involves the loss of fat and muscle. It is a Protein Mobilizing Factor.
What happen at the cellular level of Cachexia? TNF (cytokine), released by macrophages, increases muscle protein breakdown and decreases fat storage.
What mechanisms might create a hypercalcemic state? primary bone neoplasm, metastasis to bone, and PTH-secreting tumore
What are types of Paraneoplastic Syndromes? Endocrinopathies, Neuromyopathic, Vascular Disorders
What is an Endocrinopathie? --> Cushing's Syndrome = ACTH production by Lung Carcinoma --> Hypercalcemia = Parathyroid hormone production by Lung Carcinoma
What is a Neuromyopathic (myasthenic syndrome)? --> lung carcinoma tumor ellicits antibody formation --> antibodies tumor cells "cross-react" with neuronal endings
What are Vascular Disorders? Thrombosis as a result of increased synthesis of coagulation proteins induced by malignant cells
An individual will develop cancer on the foundation of what? Their GENETICS! (only those non-repaired genes that control cell-growth, division, and differentiation will give rise to neoplasia)
What are some examples of DNA Mutations? DNA point mutation, Chromosomal translocation, gene amplification
What is a DNA Point Mutation? A Base Pair Mismatch
What is Chromosomal translocation? part of telomere of chromosome interacts with a completely different chromosome. (Ex. Chromosome 9 interacting with chromosome 21)
What is Gene Amplification? It is amplification of a particular gene. (results in over-expression of that gene)
Created by: gvanderbrook