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ChapterThree

Achieving Competitive Advantage with Information Systems

QuestionAnswer
Setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards. benchmarking
Business process management (BPM) is an approach to business which aims to continuously improve and manage business processes. business process management (BPM)
The most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry. best practices
The radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks in order to improve cost, quality, and service, and to maximize the benefits of information technology. business process reengineering (BPR)
Model used to describe the interaction of external influences, specifically threats and opportunities, that affect an organization's strategy and ability to compete. competitive forces model
Information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software. computer-aided design (CAD) system
Activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader. core competency
The total elapsed time from the beginning of a process to its end. cycle time
Technologies with disruptive impact on industries and businesses, rendering existing products, services and business models obselete. disruptive technologies
Form of business organization characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin. domestic exporter
System that directly links consumer behavior to distribution and production and supply chains. efficient customer response system
Form of business organization in which a product is created, designed, financed, and initally produced in the home country, but for product-specific reasons relies heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources. franchiser
The capacity to offer individually tailored products or services on a large scale. mass customization
Form of business organization that concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries. multinational
Model of strategic systems at the industry level based on the concept of a network where adding another participant entails zero marginal costs but can create much larger marginal gains. network economics
Activities most directly related to the production and distribution of a firm's products or services. primary activities
Product or service's conformance to specifications and standards. quality
A specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities; used to designate a set of methodologies and techniques for improving quality and reducing costs. six sigma
Activities that make the delivery of a firm's primary activities possible. Consist of the organization's infrastructure, human resources, technology, and procurement. support activities
The expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and expenditure of resources when changing from one supplier or system to a competing supplier or system. switching costs
A concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization. Total quality management (TQM)
Truly global form of business organization where value-added activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand and local competitive advantage. transnational
Model that highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems can best be applied to achieve a competitive advantage. value chain model
Customer-driven network of independent firms who use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market. value web
Uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to ally with other companies to create and distribute products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations. virtual company
also known as additive manufacturing, which uses machines to make solid objects, layer by layer, from specification in a digital file. 3-D printing
Is another term for these loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers. Business Ecosystem
Porters Competitive Forces Model 1. Traditional competitors. 2. New market entrants. 3. Substitute products and services. 4 Customers. 5. Suppliers.
Information system strategies for dealing with competitive forces? 1. Basic strategy 101: align the IT with the business objectives. 2. Low-Cost Leadership. 3. Product differentiation. 4. Focus on Market Niche. 5. Strengthen Customer and supplier intimacy.
Align the IT with the business objectives? 1. Identify your business strategy and goals. 2. Break these strategic goals down. 3. Identify how you will measure progress toward goals. 4. Ask yourself, "How can IT help me achieve progress towards our goals?". 5. Measure actual performance.
Industry Value Chain? 1. Suppliers' Suppliers. 2. Suppliers. 3. Firm. 4. Distributors. 5. Customers.
Value Chain Model? 1. Support activities (Administration and management, Human Resource, Technology, Procurement). 2. Primary Activities (Inbound logistics, Operations, Sales and marketing, Service, outbound Logistics)
How IS improve Quality? 1. Reduce cycle time and simplify the production process. 2. Benchmark. 3. Use customer demands to improve products and services. 4. Improve design quality and precision. 5. Improve production precision and tighten production tolerances.
Business process management? 1. Identify processes for change. 2. Analyze Existing processes. 3. Design the new process. 4. Implement the new process 5. Continuous measurement.
Created by: TroyIS3310