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Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Conquistador Name for the Spanish explorers who claimed land in the Americas for Spain
Cultural convergence The contact and interaction of one culture with another
Caudillo A Latin American military dictator
Pampas A grassland region in Argentina and Uruguay
Cay A small, low island or coral reef
Coral The rock like skeletons of tiny sea animals
Tropical storm A storm with winds of at least 39 miles per hour
Hurricane A destructive tropical storm that forms over the Atlantic Ocean, Usually in late summer and early fall with winds of at least 74 miles per hour
El Nino A warm ocean current off South America's northwestern coast that influences global weather patterns
Canopy The upper most layer of a forest where tree branches meet
Mestizo A person of mixed European and Native American heritage
Mulatto A person of mixed African and European ancestry
Volcanoes A break in Earths crust where magma and other material erupts from Earth interior
Rainforests A type of thick evergreen forest found in areas of heavy rainfall
Desert A geographic region with too little rainfall to support much plant life also a vegetation zone
Region An area defined by one or more natural or cultural characteristic that set it apart from other areas
Isthmus A narrow strip of land that links two larger landmasses
Landmassess A very large, unbroken area of land
Volcanic islands An island formed when an underwater volcano builds up enough lava and ash to rise above sea level
Plateaus A raised area of land, such as a hill or mountain with a flat top
Basin A bowl shaped depression or hollow in Earths surface
Climates The pattern of weather over a long period of time
Temperate Moderate or mild, without extremes of hot or cold
Arid Dry or lacking rainfall also a climate or climate zone that hot and dry all year with very little rain
Semiarid Dry with little rainfall also a climate or climate zone with hot dry summers ad cool dry winters
Tropical wet and dry A climate or climate zone that is hot all year with rainy and dry season
Ecosystem A community of all the living things in an area and the environment in which they live
Cloud Forest A type of high altitude tropical forest that is usually covered
Hurricanes The name for a tropical cyclone that begins in the Atlantic Ocean
Broadleaf evergreen forest A vegetation zone of mainly tall trees that remain green all year
Desert scrub A vegetation zone of mainly small trees, bushes and other plants adapted to a dry climate
Grasslands A large open area of country covered with grass
Vegetation Zone A large area of Earth with a certain mix of plants and trees that are adapted to similar conditions
Forest floor The bottom layer or ground of a forest
Temperate Grasslands A vegetation zone of mainly grasses and scattered trees adapted to a tropical wet and dry climate
Empire A group of territories, peoples, or nations ruled by a single authority
Dictators A leader who governs by force without the consent of the people
Urban Found or living in a city
Natural Resources A useful material that is found in nature
Economic Activites Any action that relates to the making, buying and selling of goods and services
Livestock raising Raising animals for food, milk , wool or other products
Subsistence farming Farming carried out mainly to provide food for farm families
Barter Conducting trade by exchanging goods or services instead of money
Hydro-electric power Electricity that is generated from the power of moving water
Commercial farming Raising crops for sale, often on large farms
Plantations A large farm, especially in a hot area
Forestry The planting, growing and harvesting of trees
Tourism Travel for pleasure rather than business or necessity
Cultural diffusion
Industrial Revolution
Prevailing Westerlies
Created by: tjleverett21