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American History

Ideas are powerful forces for change

TermDefinition
The Enlightenment: Enlightenment, fostered by thinkers like the English thinker John Locke, and many others Many of the most distinguished leaders of the American revolution--Jefferson, Washington, Franklin, Paine--were powerfully influenced by Enlightenment thought
Second Continental Congress: The Second Continental Congress started on May 10, 1775. established the militia as the Continental Army to represent the thirteen states. also elected George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.
First Continental Congress: • met in Philadelphia's Carpenters Hall on September 5, 1774 • gathered to discuss their response to the British "Intolerable Acts."
First Continental Congress The congress had three objectives: 1.to compose a statement of colonial rights, 2.identify British parliaments violation of those rights, 3.provide a plan that would convince Britain to restore those rights.
First Continental Congress: Members agreed... ... to boycott British goods and passed resolutions asserting colonial rights. They also agreed to meet again in May 1775, if the British did not change their policies.
Olive Branch Petition It was an attempt to assert the rights of the colonists while maintaining their loyalty to the British crown. King George refused to read the petition and on August 23 proclaimed that the colonists had "proceeded to open and avowed rebellion."
Olive Branch Petition It issued a sharp protest against repressive British policies and asked the king to halt the war, repeal the Coercive Acts and bring about reconciliation.
Common Sense Published in 1776, Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament on March 22, 1765 required American Colonists to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of defending and protecting the American frontier
Stamp Act Stamp Act, however, was viewed as a direct attempt by England to raise money in the colonies without the approval of the colonial legislatures
Stamp Act Few colonists believed that they could do anything more than grumble and buy the stamps until the Virginia House of Burgesses adopted Patrick Henry's Stamp Act Resolves. These resolves declared that Americans possessed the same rights as the English
Tea Act (Definition) Definition: 1773 Act that gave a monopoly on tea sales to the East India Company. In other words, American colonists could buy no tea unless it came from that company.
Tea Act (Why) Well, the East Indian Company wasn't doing so well, and the British wanted to give it some more business. The Tea Act lowered the price on the East India tea so much that it was way below tea from other suppliers.
Tea Act (How did the colonists view the act?) The American colonists saw this law as yet another means of "taxation without representation" because it meant that they couldn't buy tea from anyone else (including other colonial merchants) without spending a lot more money.
The Act (Colonial Response) Their response was to refuse to unload the tea from the ships. This was the situation in Boston that led to the Boston Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts (Definition:) Series of laws sponsored by British Prime Minister Lord North and enacted in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party. These Acts were the harshest so far of all the Acts passed by Parliament.
Intolerable Acts (Impartial Administration of Justice Act) This allowed the royal governor of a colony to move trials to other colonies or even to England if he feared that juries in those colonies wouldn't judge a case fairly
Intolerable Acts (Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act) This made all law officers subject to appointment by the royal governor and banned all town meetings that didn't have approval of the royal governor
Intolerable Acts (Boston Port Act) This closed the port of Boston until the price of the dumped tea was recovered, moved the capital of Massachusetts to Salem, and made Marblehead the official port of entry for the Massachusetts colony.
Intolerable Acts (Quartering Act) This allowed royal troops to stay in houses or empty buildings if barracks were not available
Intolerable Acts (Quebec Act) This granted civil government and religious freedom to Catholics living in Quebec.
Intolerable Acts Rather than keep the colonists down, the Intolerable Acts stirred the revolutionary spirit to a fever pitch.
Declaration of Independence: • Drafted by Thomas Jefferson between June 11 and June 28, 1776 The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; its ideals of individual liberty had already been expressed by John Locke and the Continental philosophers
Declaration of Independence What Jefferson did was to summarize this philosophy in "self-evident truths" and set forth a list of grievances against the King in order to justify before the world the breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country
The Sons of Liberty They would visit merchants. They would tell them they should not sell British goods. The Sons of Liberty would also threaten people. They would tell people not to buy British goods.
Form of Colonial Protest Speeches in colonial assemblies
Form of Colonial Protest Formation of groups (Stamp Act Congress, Committees of Correspondence, 1st and 2nd Continental Congress
Form of Colonial Protest Civil Disobedience - effigy, Tea Party, destroying British Official ports, tar/feathering
Form of Colonial Protest Letters, newspapers, pamphlets, (Common Sense), essays, (letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer), petitions, (Olive Branch Petition)
Form of Colonial Protest colonial boycots, nonimportation agreements
Created by: naomeallison