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13TH AMENDMENT Abolition of slavery
14TH AMENDMENT Rights of citizens - Law that all people born in the US are citizens (entitled to "equal protection of the law" and "due process")
15TH AMENDMENT The right to vote. Prohibited the government from denying a person's right to vote on the basis of race.
KU KLUX KLAN Worked to keep blacks and white republicans out of office. They used threats and violence.
LITERACY TESTS Had to be able to read a section of the Constitution in order to vote.
POLL TAX Had to pay a tax to vote.
GRANDFATHER CLAUSE If a voter's father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867, then they were excused from literacy test.
SEGREGATION Segregated or separated people by race in public places (Jim Crow Laws)
PLESSY VS. FERGUSON Supreme Court rules that segregation was constitutional as long as facilities were equal (separate but equal)
SHARECROPPING Rented a plot of land and shared a percentage of crops with land owners.
WESTWARD MOVEMENT California Gold Rush (1849), Homestead Act (1862), & Completion of transcontinental railroad (1869) - Factors that encouraged settlement.
HOMESTEAD ACT 1862 - provided free land to settlers who agreed to farm it for at least 5 years.
DAWES ACT Tried to bring Native Americans into white culture by breaking up reservations and tribal groups.
MANIFEST DESTINY The idea popular in the US during the 1800s that the country must expand its boundaries to the Pacific.
RESERVATIONS An area of public lands set aside for Native Americans
INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT 1887 - Congress passed this act which required railroads to charge and publish "reasonable and just rates". Set up the ICC to oversee the railroad.
BIG BUSINESS Reduced competition which increased prices, lower quality products, and less innovation. Result created ICC & Sherman Anti-Trust Act.
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD Stretched from the East Coast to the West Coast. It was faster, safer, and cheaper
INDUSTRIALIZATION the development of industry on an extensive scale
TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FIRE Outcome of this fire was that the Intercontinental Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) was created. Created by women because many unions would not admit them.
LABOR STRIKES A work stoppage by employees who are trying to grieve problems in their job.
STANDARD OIL COMPANY Founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870. He held a monopoly over the oil industry. He lowered his prices, pressured customers not to deal with his rivals, and got railroads to give him special rates.
SHERMAN ANTI-TRUST ACT 1890 - Law that made monopolies and trusts illegal.
LABOR UNIONS Created by dissatisfied workers to demand better pay and working conditions from their employees.
KNIGHTS OF LABOR One of the first unions, organizations of garment cutters and became unpopular because of a waive of strikes (1869-1890s). Leader was Terrence Powderly.
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL) Union of skilled workers in various crafts. Founded in 1881 by Samuel Gompers. Purpose: increase wages, create shorter work hours, and improve working conditions.
ROBBER BARONS Owners of large companies who became more powerful and used unfair techniques to earn profits.
ASSEMBLY LINE Method of production in which workers add parts to build a product.
CORPORATION Business owned by investors
STOCK/SHARE Raises money for a business through sale of stock. The investor becomes a shareholder.
POPULIST PARTY Farmers labor union - helped with falling prices, higher railroad rates, income tax, 8 hour work day, and limited on immigration.
TRUST A combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition.
MONOPOLIES Total control of a type of industry by one person or one company
URBANIZATION The movement from farms to cities. Beginning in the 1800s after the Civil War.
ASSIMILATION The process of becoming similar to another culture.
NATIVISM Person who wanted to limit new immigrants to the US. The belief that America should be preserved for the white protestants (Old Immigration)
JANE ADDAMS The leading figure of settlement houses movement. She was from Chicago
IMMIGRATION Coming to live permanently in a foreign country
SETTLEMENT HOUSES A community center offers services to the poor.
STATUE OF LIBERTY Was a symbol of freedom
TENEMENT BUILDINGS Buildings that were divided up into small apartments. Many had no heat, windows, or indoor bathrooms.
EMMA LAZARUS Wrote a poem about who was welcome in the US. According to the poem, the homeless, poor, tired, and tempest-tossed garbage were welcome in America.
OLD IMMIGRANTS Before 1880, they were from WW Europe (England, France, Netherlands), Protestant
NEW IMMIGRANTS Between 1880 & 1921, they came from southern & eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America; Catholic & Jewish.
PUSH FACTORS Famine (Ireland), Lack of Jobs, Lack of Land, Political & Religious persecution (Jews), poverty, and hardship revolution.
PULL FACTORS Promise of freedom, better life, gold, factory jobs, land out west, chance to join family & friends already settled in US.
Created by: desilva13