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Praxis II PLT 0622

American with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training.
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) requires provision of special-education services to eligible students. 1. zero reject 2. nodiscrimintory eval 3. appropriate education 4.LRE 5. procedural due process 6. parent/student involvement
Maslow Behavioral theorist - hierarchy of needs – students who have not fulfilled basic needs cannot focus on academic success
Skinner Behavioral theorist- operant conditioning – behavior changes according to its immediate consequences, reinforcers, primary reinforce, secondary reinforce.
operant conditioning process attemps to modify behavior with pos. and neg. reinforcement
Erikson Behavioral theorist- stages of development, psychosocial theory. 8 stages, level 4 = school age (industy vs inferiority) level 5= adolescent (identity vs identity confusion)
Thorndike Behavioral theorist -law of effect -behavior with good consequences will occur again, behavior with bad consequences will not
Watson behavioral theorist- little albert, learning behavior is conditioned and can be correct
Positive reinforces pleasurable consequences given to strengthen good behavior.
Negative reinforces release from an unpleasant situation, given to strengthen good behavior
positive punishment bad given because of bad behavior
classical conditioning plavos dogs- process of repeatedly associating previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response.
attribution how you use information to arrive at a casual explanation for events
cognitive dissonance referrers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes and process feeling discomfert (ie smoke even know its bad)
extrinsic motivation we do it so we can get something good
intrinsic motivation we do it because it makes us feel good, so we can benefit, "finish that puzzle"
zone of proximal development support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
scaffolding support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
new blooms taxonomy creating evaluating analyzing applying understanding remembering
direct instruction teacher-centered - approach to teaching in which the teacher transmits information directly to the students; lessons are goal-oriented and structured by the teacher.
indirect instruction learning-centered teaching strategy. It promotes student involvement in the learning process and, in doing so, fosters true understanding. (case study, problem-solving, reading for meaning)
explicit teaching involves six teaching functions: daily review, presenting new material, conducting guided practice, providing feedback and correctives, conducting independent practice, weekly and monthly review
metacognition thinking about thinking- self-directed learning - mental processes that assist learners to reflect on their thinking by internalizing, understanding, and recalling the content to be learned.
formative assessment info that leads to adjust teaching, pratice for kids, future instruction ex: observation, discussion, four corners, exit slips
summative assessment used to measure growth, generally at the end of a unit ex: state assessments, unit test
diagnostic assessment pre-assessments, tells you prior knowledge, helps w/ lesson plans and differentiated instruction
analytical checklist very simple format of scoring, they did it or didnt
anecdotal notes record specific observations of students behaviors, skills and attitudes
achievement test how much a person has learned
aptitude test predict ability to learn a certain skill
analytical scoring use a rubric, seperate scores for different tasks, with this you can grade areas otherwise not, issue: takes to long, can distract from overall w/ focus on parts
holistic scoring assignment score to writing based on overall impression by it, individual features not separate, used when no correct answer
raw score total number of points possible
scaled score scores mathematically transformed from raw score to make them comparable
standard deviation
Vygotsky zone of proximal development – level of development immediately above a person’s present level.
A teacher who supports the cognitive theory of learning will see a students mind as a computer
affective domain deals with feelings, values, motivation and attitudes
wait time waiting longer between posing a question and calling on students to respond
Piaget schemas, process that enable transition from one stage into another egocentric (2-7) Preoperational stage consevation (7-11) concrete operations
Dewey curriculum should be relevant to lives learning by doing, relevant to lives, learning by doing
Kohlberg Stages of moral development 3 levels with 6 stages, 2 stages per level
bruner aim ed. to create learns who want to learn. 3 levels Ionic (1-6) info stored via images Symbolic (7+) info stored via language
schema building blocks of knowledge
self-efficacy personl idea of being able to do an activity, I can, I can't
Maslow hierarchy of needs 5. self actualization 4. esteem 3. love, belonging 2. safety 1. physiological (food, water, shelter)
negative punishment good removed because of bad behavior
socio-cultural theorist say most students learning comes from repeating behaviors that are reinforced by others
telling students what they are learning and why its important is an aspect of scaffolding
creating thinking cognitive process, that involves combing information to develop new understanding concepts or ideas
Action research research done by teachers
Created by: coloradojayhawk
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