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Stack #138437

History of the English Language. Baugh and Cable Chapter 3-Old English

ParagraphSummary
(29) Languages in England before English. Paleolithic (old stone age). Lived in caves, hunted/fished, ate wild vegetation. Mix of races. Although they had great artistic skill, nothing is known about their language.
(29) Languages in England before English. Neolithic (new stone age) 5000BC. Dark race, larger than paleo. Domesticated animals, basic agriculture, pottery and weaving. Nothing is known about their language. Some believe some remaining of this race is in the Basque people, Basque language may give a clue about one of the N
(29) Languages in England before English. Stone and metal ages. Stone age: up to 2000BC; Bronze. 2000BC>600 or 500BC; Iron: 500BC
(29) Languages in England before English. Celts Celts: First people in England of whose language we have knowledge. Two branches: Gaelic or Goidelic and Cymric or Britannic.
(30) The Romans in Britain. 55BC Julius Caesar, after conquering Gaul decided to invade England. His goal unclear, to discourage Celts from helping people in Gaul? He encountered difficulties. Next year tried again and succeeded, not greatly. Britain not troubled again in 100 years.
(31) The Roman Conquest. Claudius 43AD Claudius decided to conquer the island. Under Roman Governor Agricola (78-85) the conquest was completed after advancing to the north. (Solway, Tyne).
(31) The Roman Conquest. Scotland The Romans never penetrated into Scotland or Wales. They built a wall to protect their conquered territory. This territory was under Roman rule for over 300 years.
(32)Romanization of the Island. Roman houses Roman houses and baths testify of the introduction of Roman lifestyle in Britain: heating apparatus, water supplies, mosaic floors, stucco walls.
(32)Romanization of the Island. Christianization By the 3rd century Christianization had made its way into the island. Romanization had proceeded as in other provinces of the empire with the difference that it was cut short in the 5th century. (Remember: Old English 450AD)
(33) The Latin Language in Britain. Higher classes Latin did not replace the Celtic language as it had in Gaul. Its use among the locals was probably limited to the higher classes. Latin was familiar to the artisan class.
(33) The Latin Language in Britain. Agricola In the time of Agricola, those who had shown hostility were now eager to learn the language. Its use was not strong enough to survive the Germanic invasions. Its use probably began to decline in 410, last Roman troops were withdrawn from the island.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. When, where from? In 449 began the invasion of Britain by Germanic tribes. They came from Denmark and the Low Countries and established in the south and east.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Account The account of the invasion can be found in Bede and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in his “Ecclesiastical History of the English People” completed in 731.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Localization of tribes originally Jutes, Angles and Saxons conquered England. Jutes and Angles had their home in the Danish Peninsula, Jutes to the north and Angles to the south, the Saxons to the south and west of the Angles, between Elbe and Ems.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Celts Britain had been exposed to the attacks of the Saxons from the 4th century. Celts had come to depend on Roman arms for protection and had lost their power in warm, therefore, when the Romans left in 410, the Celts were at a disadvantage.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Vortigern agreement Vortigern, one of the Celtic leaders came into an agreement with the Jutes to keep out the warlike Picts (pre-Scottish) and Scots, in exchange Jutes would receive the Isle of Thanet.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Jutes and Kent The Jutes recognized the superiority of the island and decided to stay, dispossessing the locals and driving them out from Kent.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Saxons Saxons came in 477 establishing in the south in Sussex. In 495, a new band of Saxons came and established a little to the west in Wessex.
(34) The Germanic Conquest. Angles In the middle of the 6th century the Angles occupied the east coast and in 547 established an Anglian kingdom north of Humber. They had started their invasions in East Anglia at the end of the 5th century.
(35) Anglo-Saxon civilization. Anglo-Saxons, Celts and Roman Towns. In some cases Anglo-Saxons lived in relative peacefulness with the Celts. In others, they drove them away, to Cornwall and Wales. The Roman towns were destroyed. The new comers were not inclined to live in towns; they were used to the open.
(35) Anglo-Saxon civilization. Social organization Society was organized in clanes and families with a distinction between eorls (hereditary aristocracy) and ceorls (simple freemen). Tribes combined their powers to form small kingdoms.
(35) Anglo-Saxon civilization. Seven Kingdoms Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy: Northumbria (supremacy in early 7th c.) , Mercia (leadership in 8th c.), East Anglia, Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex (9th c. supremacy). In 830 all England recognized king Egbert, in 871 king Alfred came into power, giving Wessex prosp
(36) The names England and English. Celts and Latin naming The Celts called all conquerors Saxons. Latin writers called the Teutons in England Saxons and their land Saxonia. Soon Angli and Anglia were used to refer to Teutons, these terms became the standard in Latin texts (around 600AD).
(36) The names England and English. Vernacular Writers in vernacular called their language Englisc derived from O.E. Engle (Angles). From 1000, Englaland begins to take its place English therefore is older than England.
(36) The names England and English. Reasons Two main reason for this predominance in use (as against Saxons or Angli): 1. To avoid confusion with Saxon who stayed on the continent and 2. Early supremacy of the Anglian kingdoms.
(37) The Origin and Position of English. Definition and Branch Mix of closely related dialects of Jutes, Saxons and Angles. English belongs to the Low West Germanic branch:
(37) The Origin and Position of English. Common characteristics with other Germanic Languages. 1 Grimm’s law. Shifting of consonants corresponding to Grimm’s Law: p,t,k stops > f, þ, h. Latin > Germanic (piscis>fish, trés>three, centum>hundred)
(37) The Origin and Position of English. Common characteristics with other Germanic Languages. 2 Verbs and adjectives and stress. Weak and strong declension of the adjective. Weak and strong verb conjugation. Stress on the first syllable or root (feature that would result in the decay of inflections)
(37) The Origin and Position of English. Not Common characteristics with other Germanic Languages. Vs. North or East Germanic . It has certain features that makes it belong to the West Germanic branch vs. The North Germanic (Scandinavian) and East Germanic (Gothic): Certain phonetic changes; Gemination of consonants under certain conditions.
(37) The Origin and Position of English. Not Common characteristics with other Germanic Languages. Second or High German Shift It did not participate in the Second or High German Sound shift. It belongs to the lowlands in West Germanic branch. English vs. German water>wasser, open>offen, tongue>zunge.
(38) The Periods in the History of English English in England: Old English (450AD-1150. Fully inflected language), Middle (1150-1500. Levelled inflections.), Modern: (1500-. Lost inflections.)
(39) Dialects of Old English. Four dialects Northumbrian, Mercian (both known as Anglian, only runic inscriptions remain, mainly translations of the bible); West Saxon (southwest, basis of study of Old English, this kingdom had the literary standard), and Kentish (Jutes, southeast)
(39) Dialects of Old English. Norman Conquest effects The Norman Conquest reduced all dialects to a common level of unimportance. When English resurfaced in Middle English, a different dialect was the base.
(40) Some characteristics of Old English. 1. Pronunciation and spelling Pronunciation and spelling: Vowels: stán>stone; fót (foot); céne (keen); fýr (fire); hú (how). Spelling: th= wiþ (with), or đa (that). “a” in “hat”= æ. Sh>sc (scéap>sheep)
(40) Some characteristics of Old English. 2. Latin and French Almost purely Germanic, > Norman Conquest brought French as language of higher classes: 85% of OE voc about learning- literature died out, voc still exists from O.E. refers to basics: mann, wif, cild, hús, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, aux. verbs
(40) Some characteristics of Old English. 3. Grammar type of language The most fundamental feature is its grammar. It was a synthetic language, indicating relationships between words in a sentence by means of inflections.
(40) Some characteristics of Old English. 3. Grammar nouns Nom. Murus (wall), Acc. Murum, Gen. Muri (of the wall), Dative muro (to the wall).
(40) Some characteristics of Old English. 3. Grammar verbs, nouns, adjectives: inflections and declensions Verbs: number, person, tense and mood. Nouns and adjectives are inflected for 4 cases in the singular and 4 in the plural, the adjective has separations in 3 genders.
(41) The Noun Distinctions between number and case. There is a vowel (a, ó, i, u) declension (strong) and a consonant declension (weak) according to whether the stem ended in Germanic in vowel or consonant.
(41) The Noun. Stone: Strong Masculine Singular. Nom. Stán; Acc. Stán; Genitive. Stán-es; Dative: Stán-e
(41) The Noun. Stone: Strong Masculine Plural. Nom. Stán-as; Acc. Stán-as; Genitive. Stán-a; Dative. Stán-um
(41) The Noun. Gift: Strong Feminine Singular. Nom. Gief-u; Acc. Genitive Dative Gief-e.
(41) The Noun. Gift: Strong Feminine Plural. Nom. Acc.; Genitive Gief-a; Dative. Gief-um.
(41) The Noun. Hunter: Weak Masculine Singular. Nom. Hunt-a; Acc. Gen. Dat. Hunt-an
(41) The Noun. Hunter: Weak Masculine Plural. Nom. Acc. Hunt-an; Gen. Hunt-ena; Dative: Hunt-um
(42) Grammatical Gender No correspondence between male objects and masculine, or female and feminine, or neutral-neuter.
(43) The Adjective, types of declensions Two declensions: Strong: used with nouns not accompanied by a definite article or similar word (demonstrative) gód mann, Weak: noun preceded by such a word: sé góda mann (the good man)
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Masculine Singular Nom. Gód; Acc. Gód-ne; Gen. Gódn-es, Dat. Gód-um, Instrumental: gód-e
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Masculine Plural Nom. Acc. Gód-e, Gen. God-ra; Dat. Gód-um
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Femenine Singular Nom. Gód; Acc. Gód-e; Gen. Dat. Gód-re. No instrumental.
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Feminine Plural Nom. Acc. Gód-a; Gen. Gód-ra; Dat. Gód-um.
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Neuter Singular Nom. Acc. Gód; Gen. Gód-es; Dat. Gód-um; Instrumental Gód-e
(43) The Adjective. Good Strong Neuter Plural Nom. Acc. Gód; Gen. Gód-ra; Dat. Gód-um.
(43) The Adjective. Good Weak Masculine Nom. Gód-a; Acc. Gen. Dat. Nom and acc. plural Gód-an. Gen pl. Gód-ena/ra. Dat. Plural. Gód-um.
(43) The Adjective. Good Weak Feminine Nom. Gód-e; Acc. Gen. Dat. Nom and acc. plural Gód-an. Gen pl. Gód-ena/ra. Dat. Plural. Gód-um.
(43) The Adjective. Good Weak Neuter Feminine Nom. Acc. Gód-e; Gen. Dat. Nom and acc. plural Gód-an. Gen pl. Gód-ena/ra. Dat. Plural. Gód-um.
(44) The definite article Singular Masculine O.E. possessed a fully inflected definite article. Nom. Sé; Acc. Đone; Gen đæs; Dat. Đæm; Inst. đy, đon.
(44) The definite article Singular Feminine O.E. possessed a fully inflected definite article. Nom. séo; Acc. đá; Gen. Dat. đ´ære
(44) The definite article Singular Neuter O.E. possessed a fully inflected definite article. Nom. Acc. Đæt; Gen. Đæs; Dat đæm; Instrumental đy, đon
(44) The definite article Plurals O.E. possessed a fully inflected definite article. All genders: Nom. Acc. Đá; Gen. Đára; Dat đæm.
(44) The definite article. Meaning. Although the ordinary meaning of Sé, séo, đæt, is ‘the’, the word is really a demonstrative pronoun (that) or relative pronoun (who, which, that) or personal pronoun (he, she, it).
(45) The Personal Pronoun. Almost all languages have fully inflected personal pronouns. Apart from the common ones, O.E. had a dual form to refer to 2 objects. (see table in book)
(46) The verb. O.E had 2 simple inflected tenses: present and past. Also inflections for indic., subjunct., and imperative moods, 2 numbers and 3 persons. Germanic languages 2 classes of verbs: weak and strong (show tense by a modification of their root vowel).
(46) The verb. Strong verbs Four parts: 1. Infinitive, 2. Preterit singular (1st and 3rd person), 3. 2 person and Preterit plural, and 4. Past participle. They can be classified in 7 classes (the 7th is the reduplicating verbs).
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Conjugation. Ic Present indicative drif-e; past indicative dráf; present subjunctive drífe; past subjunctive drif-e.
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Conjugation. đu Present indicative drif-st (est); past indicative drif-e; present subjunctive dríf-e; past subjunctive drif-e.
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Conjugation. hé Present indicative drif-đ (-eđ); past indicative dráf; present subjunctive dríf-e; past subjunctive drif-e.
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Conjugation. Wé, gé, híe Present indicative drif-ađ; past indicative drif-on; present subjunctive dríf-en; past subjunctive drif-en.
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Origin of dental suffixes Origin of the dental suffixes (ed/d) to form past of weak verbs is unknown. Theory: I work did (I did work)>I worked.
(46) The verb. Strong verbs. Past and past participle Many O.E. verbs form their past by adding –ede, -de and their past participle by adding –ed, -od, or –d. Fremman (perform) > fremede > gefremed. Lufian (love) > lufode > gelufod.
(47) The Language Illustrated (1) In ðeosse abbudissan° mynstre wæs sum broðor syndriglice° mid godcundre° gife gemæred° 7 geweorðad°.abbess (gs), especially, divine (dsf), made famous (p ptc), honoured (p ptc)
(48) The resourcefulness of the Old English Vocabulary The language at this stage shows great capacity for bending old words to new uses. By means of prefixes and suffixes a single root may yield a variety of derivatives. Compounds are also formed with great ease.
(48) The resourcefulness of the Old English Vocabulary. Examples Mód (mood, heart, mind, spirit, boldness, courage) > mód-ig /iglie (adjective) > mód-iglice (adverb) > mód-ignes(noun) >mód-igian(verb) >gemódod > módfull > mód-léas (spiritless) > glædmódnes (kindness).
(48) The resourcefulness of the Old English Vocabulary compared to today From the same root more than a hundred words were formed. O.E. was more resourceful at utilizing its internal material, Modern English relies in borrowing elements from other languages.
(49) Self-explaining compounds. Like German, O.E. had a lot of them (like Mod. English) steam-boat.
(50) Prefixes and suffixes. Suffixes. Some common suffixes are: -ig, -full, leas, lice, -nes and –ung. Adjective suffixes: -sum, -wís.
(50) Prefixes and suffixes.Prefixes Prefixes: á-, bé, fir-, fore-, ge-, mis-, of-, ofer-, on-, tó-, un-, under-, wiþ-(against or away as in withdraw). There is a vast number of synonyms for words like war, warrior, shield, sword, battle, etc.
(51) Old English literature. Importance The literature of the Anglo-Saxons is one of the richest and most important preserved of the Germanic peoples. Brought by Germanic tribes and preserved by oral tradition.
(51) Old English literature. Christianity Owes its preservation to the introduction of Christianity in the 6th century. There are two streams: the Christian and the pagan, but they are not as separate as one would expect. (pagan poems with Christian sentiment).
(51) Old English literature.Beowolf The greatest work of Old English is Beowolf, folk epic of oral tradition
(51) Old English literature. Other works 1. Widsith, a short poem, one of the earliest. A minstrel give account of his wanderings and of all the kings he met. Deor, another poem. One of the most human poems. A minstrel is thrust out by a younger one.
(51) Old English literature. Other works 2 Wanderer is a tragedy about a man who has fallen for evil times. Seafarer is a monologue describing hardship of the sea. The Ruin, description of a city in ruins.Battle of Brunanburh and Battle of Maldon, two war poems, describing heroic victory and defea
(51) Old English literature.Poetry More than 1/2 of Anglo-Saxon poetry has Christian topics. Centres: Northumbria and Mercia (7th and 8th c). Cædmon, one of the earliest English poets we know. Cynewulf (c. 800) wrote 4 poems: Juliana, Elene (legends of Saints), Christ, Fates of the Apostl
(51) Old English literature.Prose Prose generally comes late, but English possessed a considerable amount in the 9th century, a time where poetry was scarcely developed in other European countries.
(51) Old English literature. Prose. Role of Alfred the Great. Great amount of prose thanks to Alfred the Great (871-899), who realized that the greatness of a country does not only depend on its military ability or its possessions.
(51) Old English literature. Prose. Alfred the Great. Works He learned Latin and translated or caused others to translate: Pastoral Care of Pope Gregory and Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of the English People, The consolidation of philolosophy of Boethius.
(51) Old English literature. Prose. Alfred the Great. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle Alfred caused a record to be compiled of the important event of the English history; this continued for over two centuries and is the well-known Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Alfred was the founder of the English prose.
Created by: jasan1975