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Unit 1: Colonization

U 1: European Colon

TermDefinition
Crusades Christian European armies who invaded the Middle East believing they were on a divine mission to rid the Holy Lands of Muslims
Reformation theological event that divided the Christian church into 2 main areas: Protestantism and Catholicism; touched off further divisions within the Protestant Church
Bubonic Plague disease that killed half of European population and led to the rise of cities and the urban middle class
Renaissance intellectual movement of the 15th century that promoted human achievement, science, and a move away from the Christian church
Christopher Columbus Italian sailor who gained permission from Spanish monarchy to sail west in the hope of finding a shorter route to India; found the Americas
Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs and established the Spanish empire in Mexico
Columbian Exchange a system that allowed for the exchange of food, ideas, animals, diseases, and people between Europe and the New World
encomienda system of forced labor involving native peoples in Mexico and the southwest
Reasons for exploring and colonizing the new world gold-riches; God-spread Christianity; glory-conquer the land and gain fame
Treaty of Tordesillas Pope Alexander VI divided the New World between Spain and Portugal to avoid a war
mestizo a person of mixed ancestry: European and Native American
Pope Pueblo Indian who led a rebellion against Spanish priestly authority; forced the Spanish out of the southwest temporarily
Conquistadors Juan Ponce de Leon and Francisco Coronado
joint stock company investors who pool their money to support a colony and hopefully yield a profit
Jamestown 1st colonial town in Virginia colony
brown gold tobacco - cash crop in Virginia
indentured servants individuals who contract to work in the New World in exchange for passage, food, and shelter
royal colony New World colony controlled by the British monarchy
Bacon's Rebellion conflict where VA frontier settlers rebel against the unfair practices of the colonial government and wealthy planters
Puritans Protestants who wanted to purify the church of remaining Catholic elements
Pilgrims Protestants who wanted to separate from the church
Quakers Protestants who oppose violence
Mayflower Compact document outlining colonial self government
John Winthrop colonial leader of Massachusetts Bay Colony
Roger Williams Puritan banished because he protested Puritan prohibition of freedom of religion
Anne Hutchinson Puritan banished because she believed that individuals did not need ministers to interpret the Bible
William Penn founder of the Pennsylvania colony
Pequot War conflict between Puritans, Narrangsetts, and Pequot Indians over loss of land
King Philips War Chief Metacom and Wampanoags who sought to banish European invaders stealing their land
Dutch European fur traders who maintained peaceful relations with native peoples
French and Indian War North American conflict involving France and Britain's competition for resources and land
salutary neglect allowed colonial governments to gain and strengthen political power
Navigation Acts restricted colonial trade to England only
Proclamation of 1763 British declaration that banned western settlement across the Appalachian mountains
mercantilism favorable balance of trade whereby a nation exports more than it imports
Created by: SEarCH13-14