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Methods 3 Midterm

NWHSU Methods 3 Midterm

Define P.A.R.T.S? P-pain, A-asymmetry, R-Range of motion, T-tissue,tone,texture,temperature, S-special test
What to document for pain? Location, quality, intensity
What are the 4 things to ask a patient about pain? 1-to localize the pain, 2-describe the pain, 3-rate the pain 0/10, 4-pain radiation
What are the 5 types of movement in ROM? 1-Joint play, 2-End feel, 3-Active, 4-Passive, 5-Pathological
What are two examples of accessory joint movements? Joint play & End feel
PARTS is? Objective findings for subluxation
What is the visceral relationship of the upper thoracic? Cardio/Resp
What is the visceral relationship of the mid thoracic? Upper GI
What is the visceral relationship of the lower thoracic? Lower GI/GU
What is the visceral relationship of the C3-5? Hiccups
Define Hypermobile Joints? Stable under normal loads. May exhibit increased segmental mobility in only one plane.
Define Joint Instability? More advanced and Irreversible changes in the joints stabilizing structures. Multiple planes of aberrant joint movement. Treatment should include spinal stabilzation.
Define S.O.A.P? S-Subjective, O-objective, A-assessment, P-Plan/procedure
What does the S stand for in SOAP? Subjective - Patients report
What does the O stand for in SOAP? Objective - Doctors findings
What does the A stand for in SOAP? Assessment- Diagnosis and how problem is doing
What does the P stand for in SOAP? Plan/Procedure - What was done and said to patient
What is the problem with static Xrays? Static x-ray marking systems attempt to evaluate a dynamic structure during a specific instant
What roles do xrays play in chiropractic? 1-Rule out pathology, 2-Determines facets/disc planes, presence of anomalies, 3-Biomechanical info
In a APOM view, the largest atlas lateral mass measurements indicates? Anterior rotation in relation to the other side
If difference in ADI space and difference in lateral mass measurements in APOM view, what does the small ADI measurement usually indicate? Anterior rotation on that side
Define Cephalad? Towards the head
Define Caudal? Towards the feet
Define restriction? Loss of MOVEMENT. Active or passive
Define Fixation? Loss of END FEEL/JOINT PLAY
Movement around axis? Rotation
Movement along axis? Translation
Flexion/Extension take place in what plane and around what axis? In sagittal plane around coronal (x) axis
Lateral Flexion (Abduction/Adduction) takes place in what plane and around what axis? Occur in cornal plane around sagittal (z) axis
Rotation takes place in what plane and around what axis? Occurs in transverse plane around vertical (y) axis
What are the 3 translation movements? 1-AP-PA glide, 2-Lateral glide, 3-Compression/tractio
What are the 3 rotational movements? 1-Axial rotation, 2-Lateral flexion, 3-Flex/Ext
What type of movement is springing T8 I to S? Flexion, Sagittal, Coronal (x)
What type of movement is general spinal motion screen? P to A translation
What type of movement when you rotate the spine and spring PA over the T8 transverse? Rotation around Transverse plane, Vertical (y)
Is nucleus ball bearing? NO!
Define Anulus Fibrosus? Fibrous outer portion of disk
Nucleus pulposus contains a lot of? Water
Define End-plates? Hyaline Cartilaginous plates that attach disk to vertebrae. Form growth zone for immature vertbral body. Provide permeable barrier bw disc and body
Does Anulus fibrosus have its own blood supply? yes
How does Intervertebral disk get its blood supply? No direct blood supply, use diffusion from capillaries
Define Schmorls nodes? Invaginations of nuclear material thru the endplate
How are annulus fibrosus arranged? Arranged in a concentric laminated bands which cross each other obliquely, each forming an angle of 30 degrees to vertebral body.
What is the weakest part of annulus fibrosus? Posterior lateral aspect
What are 4 types of disc leasions? 1-Internal disc derangement, 2-Disc protrusion, 3-Disc extrusion, 4-Disc sequestration
What occurs in an Internal Disc Derangement Asymptomatic Disc bulge? Small annulus tear
What occurs in a internal disc disruption? No buldging yet. Sinuvertebral nerve activated and painful. Discogentic pain.
What occurs in a Disc protrusion? Now bulding
What occurs in a disc extrusion? Ligament now ruptured
What occurs in a disc sequestration? Nuclear material is now in epidural space
Jobs of facet joints? Control patterns of motion, protect disc from shear forces, provide support
Facet orientation of cervical? 45 deg
Facet orientation of thoracic? 60 deg
Facet orientation of lumbar? 90 deg
Facet joints were NOT designed to do what? Bear weight
Where does the most movement come from in spine? Cervical
What does the atlas not have that other cervical vert have? No vert body, no SP
The dens is surrounded by? Ant- anterior arch of atlas, Lat-lateral masses, Post-transverse ligament
Articular surfaces of condyles at C2 (axis) are? Convex and converge anteriorly
What is the atlantodentral articulation formed by? Anterior arch of atlas and the dens
Each occipital condyle has its own ____ axis of rotation? Ecentric. *Limits active rotation*
The center of mass lies? Anterior to the spinal column
How do you evaulate for upper cervical instability? Flex/Ext stress xrays
Name NON-traumatic conditions associated with increase in ADI space? Down Syndrome, Rheumatoid arthristis, Neurofibromatosis, Psoriasis, Lupus
CO-C1 flexion occurs how? Occipital condyles glide post&sup on the lateral masses of the atlas
Co-C1 extension occurs how? Condyles slide anterior to the lateral masses of the atlas
Alar ligament controls which movements? Rotation and lateral flexion
Define Concentric rotation of atlas? Rotation around a central atlas
Define eccentric rotation of atlas? Axis of rotation on either lateral masses
During C1-C2 rotation, what occurs? Vertical displacement
What CO-C1 adjustment would you do for: laterally flexed fixed on OPEN wedge side? Occipital lift
What CO-C1 adjustment would you do for: laterally flexed on closed wedge side? Knife-Edge Mastoid
What CO-C1 adjustment would you do for: rotation fixed on posterior side? Thumb occiput
What CO-C1 adjustment would you do for: extended malposition or flexion restriction? Zygoma Occiput
What CO-C1 adjustment would you do for: flexed malposition or extension restriction? Pisiform mastoid
PICA syndrome aka Wallenbergs Syndrome is? Caused by a stroke in the vertebral or posterior inferior cerebellar artery of the brain stem
What is the most serious potential consequence of cervical spine adjusting? PICA sydrome
What should you avoid combining while doing a cervical adjustment ? Avoid combining rotation and extension when performing cervical adjustments
What is the single most likely movement to cause occlusion? Rotation. *Avoiding adjusting in full rotation-limit to 45 deg*
What are some pre-adjustment screening test to test for vertebral artery competency? George test, DeKlynes Test *Lots of false positives/negatives with this*
What are the 5 D's to look and listen for? Dizziness, Drop attacks, Diplophia, Dysarthria, Dysphagia
What is the "A" to look and listen for? Ataxia
What are the 3 N's to look and listen for? Nausea, Numbness, Nystagmus
What is "THE" phrase to be aware of for sign of stroke? I have a pain in my neck and/or head unlike anything I have ever had before"
Flexibility in lower cervical spine determined by? Disc height to body ratio
What area is the MOST flexible? Cervical
What area is the LEAST flexible? Thoracic
Describe the uncinate processes? Posterior lateral aspect of the superior margin of the vertebral body are lipped forming uncinate process which serves to stabilize and strengthen.
In cervical lordosis, what is the midpoint or stress vertebrae? C5
What measurement do you use to estimate cervical curve? Jochumsons measurement
How do you do Jochumsons measurement? Draw a line from the anterior tubercle of C1 to the anterior superior corner of C7 body
What measurement is normal in a cervical curve? 3-8mm
What measurement shows HYPERlordosis in a cervical curve? over 9mm
What measurement shows HYPOlordosis in a cervical curve? 1-2mm
What measurement shows alordosis in a cervical curve? 1- -3mm
What measurement shows kyphosis in a cervical curve? less than -3 mm
Strongest most resilient curve occurs when? Cord=Radius
C2-C7 adjustments: For rotation OR contralateral lateral flexion Index Pillar Supine
C2-C7 adjustments: For Rotation AND contralateral lateral flexion? Thumb pillar & Index pillar prone
C2-C7 adjustments: Rotation AND contralateral lateral flexion Digital Pillar Pull "Kiddy Pop"
Define motion segment? A functional unit made of the two adjacent articulating surfaces and the connecting tissues biding them together
Define subluxation? A motion segment in which alignment, movement, integrity, and/or physiological function are altered although contact bw joint surfaces remains intact
Define subluxation syndrome? An aggregate of signs and symptoms that related to pathophysiology or dysfunction of a spinal or pelvic motion segment, or to peripheral joints
Define manipulation? Manual procedure that involves a directed thrust to move a joint past the physiological range of motion, w/o exceeding the anatomical limit
Define adjustment? Any chiro therapeutic prodecdure that utilizes controlled force, leverage, direction, amplitude, and velocity which is directed at specific joints or anatomical regions.
Total range of flexion/extension in CO-C1? 30-35 degrees
During flexion the occipital condyles ___ on the lateral masses of the atlas; the occipital bone _____ from the posterior arch Recede; separate
During extension the occipital condyles slide ___ on the lateral masses of the atlas; the occipital bone ___ the posterior arch Anteriorly; approximates
Where does lateral flexion first take place in CO-C1? Bw C2-C3
The atlanto-axial articulation is composed of 3 joints:? 1&2- two lateral joints at the lateral masses of atlas, 3-atlanto-odontoid articulation bw the dens and the anterior arch of the atlas
Where does the first 25 degrees of cervical spine take place? Bw C1-C2
Does lateral flexion occur normally bw C1-C2? Not really, less then 2deg
Created by: wizdumbslp
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