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CH 18 Genetics


What encodes proteins that accumulate in unfertilized eggs and are needed for embryo developments signal transduction pathways
substance whose concentration determines cell fate maternal effect genes
substance whose concentration determines cell fates, assign identity to body segments morphogen
a gene that plays a role in determining a tissue's identity during development homeotic genes
individuals with cells of more than one genotype segmentation genes
a tag used to follow proteins in living cells genetic mosaics
a DNA binding motif found in certain transcription factors green fluorescent protein
a gene is turned on in an inappropriate tissue or at the wrong time homeodomain
suppression of gene expression by double stranded RNA ectopic expression
when a null allele is dominant to a wild type allele RNAi
the fate of early embryonic cells can be altered by the environment haploinsufficiency
early embryonic cells ar assigned specific fates regulative determination
divide the body into identical units (segments) mosaic determination
loss of function mutations are ??? most common
loss of function mutations usually recessive, can alter the amino acid sequence – results in diminished (or no) biochemical activity, can interfere with gene expression (transcription, RNA processing, translation) – results in decreased (or no) expression of a normal protein
null mutations are??? complete loss of function - aka knockouts
null mutation Knockouts can be made by gene-targeting
hypomorphic mutations partial loss-of-function, useful for understanding how one gene functions at multiple times in development, e.g. wingless gene in Drosophila is essential for viability of embryos and for formation of wings in adults
conditional mutations loss-of-function only under certain conditions e.g. Temperature-sensitive mutations
dominant negative (anti-morphic) alleles (or mutations) inactive protein expressed from mutant allele reduces the function of normal protein expressed from the wild-type allele ie: multimeric proteins, or mutant receptor that sequesters a ligand
gain of function mutations usually dominant, can produce too much protein, or proteins with new function
haploinsufficiency In some genes, one wild-type allele is not sufficient for normal development
homeodomain DNA binding domain, interacts with specific sequences in DNA
phenocopy a change in phenotype arising from environmental events that mimic the effects of a mutation in a gene - no heritable because they do not result from a change in a gene
RNAi suppression of gene expression by double stranded RNA, disrupts gene function without mutations
ectopic gene expression a gene is turned on in an inappropriate tissue or at the wrong time, expression of a gene at an abnormal place or time - it occurs outside the cell or tissue where the gene is normally expressed
epistasis a gene interaction in which the effects of an allele at one gene hide the effects of alleles at another
morphogen substances that define different cell fates in a concentration dependent manner
juxtacrine factors signaling factors that complete cell to cell communication in the form of direct contact, ligand is membrane-bound and interacts with a receptor on an adjacent cell
caudal and hunchback two maternal transcripts that are distributed evenly throughout the oocyte prior to fertilization in drosophila
homeodomain a dna binging motif found in certain transcription factors
mosaic determination early embryonic cells are assigned specific fates
what is this: zygote, multinucleate syncytium, syncytial blastoderm, cellular blastoderm the early embryonic development of drosophila
T/F: the construction of genetic mosaics can help determine which cells need to express the gene so that the organism can develop normally True
T/F: Maternal mRNA transcripts of the bicoid (bcd) gene are deposited in the anterior portion of the egg in drosophila True
paracrine signaling ligand is secreted and mediates long- range (e.g. hormones) or short-range signals (e.g. Wingless and hedgehog)
Created by: TDGarza1