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Early Man Unit

Study Guide

1. BCE/BC ___________ – The time period before the birth of Jesus -The Agricultural Revolution occurred about 10,000 BCE which means about 12,017 years ago. -BCE is newer, less religious synonym of BC.
2. CE/AD ___________ – The time period after the birth of Jesus - Homo sapiens are the only hominin to have lived after the birth of Jesus, or into the ____________ -CE is newer, less religious synonym of AD.
3. Archeologist ___________ is a social scientist who studies the past by examining artifacts (things that people have left behind like tools, cave artwork, pottery etc.) -An ________________ was brought in to study the cave paintings found in Lascaux.
5. Paleoanthropologist ___________ is a social scientist who studies the culture and evolution of the earliest hominins. - The new hominin skeleton that was just found really excited the ___________.
6. Prehistory The time period before writing was invented (about 3,500 BCE) when we could not record historical events -Homo sapiens recorded their history with paintings on cave walls during ___________ times.
4. Artifacts An object that was made or used by people in the past and left behind (tools, pottery, musical instruments, art etc.) -Archeologists found and studied the ___________ left behind by the Homo sapiens, which turned out to be a spear thrower.
15. Paleolithic Age/Era -The older part of the Stone Age when people lived as nomadic hunters and gatherers following their food source. -Time period started by Homo habilis and their simple stone tools and continued until farming was invented. - Means "Old Stone Age"
16. Biped -Any animal that walks on 2 feet
17. Nomad -People who wander from place to place following their food source. -During the Paleolithic Era hominids were nomadic, moving with the herds of animals throughout the year.
19. Hominin -All species of early human ancestors that have already gone extinct, and modern man.
18. Migrate -To move from one place to another, usually for a more comfortable climate or more resources like food or water. -Homo erectus was the first species to___________ out of Africa and into Asia & Europe.
11. Homo habilis -Named “handy man” because of ability to make tools (sharp rocks for cutting, sharp bones/sticks for digging) -biped, simple tools, lived in small groups, started the *Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era) -2nd of 5
20. Neolithic Age/Era -Means "New Stone Age" -Still using stone for tools -Began when people started to grow crops and domesticate animals (Agricultural Revolution) -First permanent settlements, ended when people started using bronze instead of stone.
22. Domesticate (animals and plants) -Raising and using animals for food and to do work for humans, like carrying heavy loads and pulling plows. -goats, sheep & cattle -Grasses (cereal grains like rye, wheat and barley) purposely planted near settlements to feed the population
24. Who started the Paleolithic Era, and what was it that they did? -Homo habilis ushered in the Old Stone Age when they created the first stone tools.
10. Australopithecus afarensis -Nicknamed "Lucy". First part of name means "Southern Ape” and second part of name means that she was found in the Afar triangle in Africa. -Bipedal -No man made tools, used what was around her -Basic communication like grunting -1 of 5
12. Homo erectus -Name means "upright man", incorrectly thought to be oldest biped -First to migrate out of Africa to Europe and Asia. -First to control fire. -First to build shelter. -Made more complex tools (the hand axe). -cared for sick/injured
13. Homo neanderthalensis -Name "man from the Neander Valley" in Germany -Lived & hunted in groups -First to bury their dead. -Made complex tools (rock-tipped spears, knives). -Lived and hunted in organized groups. -Co-existed with us. -4 of 5
14. Homo sapiens -Name means, "wise man" -Spread out all over the world thanks to the ice bridges of the Ice Age -The most advanced tools (spear thrower, bow/arrow) -Built shelter and wore fitted clothing. -Created art and musical instruments. -5 of 5
21. Specialization -When not hunting every day, people do one job & get good at it -Allows a community to make fast advancements in tech. Allowed an increased surplus of products and allowed trading with others.
25-1. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. a. make stone tools - allowed hominins access to more food energy and helped hominins survive climate change. -Replaced the need for big claws and teeth.
25-2. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. b. Mastered fire - allowed hominins to stay warm, cook food, and hunt more effectively. Gave us access to more nutrients in our meat. Helped us survive climate change.
25-3. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. 1st to make shelters which protected hominins from weather and predators. Helped us survive climate change.
26-1. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people hunted and gathered and during the Neolithic Age people relied on farming and domesticating animals for food.
26-2. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people moved around as nomads following their food source and during the Neolithic Age people lived in more permanent settlements.
26-3. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people had to be good at many jobs including hunting and making stone tools and during the Neolithic Age people could specialize in one job like tool making or basket weaving.
7. External/Environmental Pressure Changes to an organism’s environment or habitat that make it difficult for them to survive without adapting.
8. Physical Adaptations Changes to an organism’s body that make it easier for them to survive external pressures. *These do not happen during any 1 lifespan, but over many generations* EX: The shape of a bird’s beak, the camouflage fur of a predator or prey animal
9. Behavioral Adaptations Changes to the way an organism lives their life that make it easier for them to survive environmental pressures. EX: Migration of birds, building shelter
23. How do environmental or selective pressures cause adaptation and evolution to happen? Environmental/selective pressures (drought, famine, extreme heat or cold or predation) cause organisms in area to either adapt physically or in the way they behave to avoid dying. EX: Neanderthals are shorter & have big noses to survive Ice Age cold
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