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Unit II Early Man

Study Guide

TermDefinition
1. BCE Before Common Era – The time period before the birth of Jesus (Ex. The Agricultural Revolution occurred about 10,000 BCE which means about 12,017 years ago.) Newer, less religious synonym of BC.
2. CE Common Era – The time period after the birth of Jesus (Ex. Leif Erikson discovered America in CE 1,001, almost 500 years before Christopher Columbus in CE 1492.) Newer, less religious synonym of AD.
3. BC Before Christ – The time period before the birth of Jesus (Ex. The first form of written language, Cuneiform, is created about 3,500 BC.)
4. AD Anno Domini – Means, “the year of the lord” – The time period after the birth of Jesus (Ex. We are currently living in AD 2017, which means it has been 2017 years since the birth of Jesus.)
5. Archeologist A social scientist who studies the past by examining artifacts (things that people have left behind like tools, cave artwork, pottery etc.)
6. Paleoanthropologist A social scientist who studies the earliest humans. For example, they might study Australopithecus afarensis and their ability to walk on 2 legs.
7. Prehistory Any time before writing was invented (about 3,500 BCE) since we could not record historical events (ex. Homo erectus could communicate but couldn’t write, therefore, they existed during this period.)
9. Artifacts An object made or used by people in the past (tools, bones, cave art etc.) that scientists can study to learn more about the group’s daily lives.
10. Paleolithic Age/Era The beginning of the stone age when people lived as nomadic hunters and gatherers following their food source. The time period was started by Homo habilis and their simple stone tools and continued until farming was invented.
11. Biped An animal that walks on 2 feet (ex. All 5 species we studied had this ability.)
12. Nomad People who wander from place to place following their food source (ex. During the Paleolithic Era hominids were nomadic, moving with the herds of animals throughout the year.)
13. Hominid All forms of early human that have already gone extinct, and modern man.
14. Migrate to move from one place to another, usually for more comfortable climate or more resources like food or water (ex. Homo erectus was the first species to migrate out of Africa and into Asia.)
16. Homo habilis 2 of 5, second group of hominids studied, their nickname, “handy man” comes from ability to make tools (sharp rocks for cutting, sharp bones/sticks for digging) biped, simple tools, lived in small groups, started the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era)
21. Neolithic Age/Era New Stone Age - Began when people started to grow crops and domesticate animals, first permanent settlements, ended when people stopped making tools out of stone and started using bronze instead.
22. Domesticate (animals and plants) raising and using animals for food and to do work for humans
23. Who started the Paleolithic Era, and what was it that they did? Homo habilis established the Old Stone Age when they created the first stone tools.
8. History Any time after writing was invented (about 5,517 years ago) (ex. We know a lot about the history of the Romans and their amazing military since they were able to record their history.)
15a. Australopithecus afarensis 1 of 5, earliest hominid studied, nicknamed "Lucy". First part of name means "Southern Ape” and second part of name means that it was found in the Afar triangle in Africa.
15b. Australopithecus afarensis They were Bipeds - walked on 2 feet. No man-made tools found (used resources around them), basic communication skills (grunting and body language)
17a. Homo erectus 3 of 5, their name means "upright man". They were the oldest Biped found when they were discovered, but not any more. They were around for the longest amount of time (1.7 million years)
17b. Homo erectus Bipedal, first to migrate out of Africa to Europe and Asia. First to control fire. First to build shelter. Made more complex tools (the hand axe).
18a. Homo neanderthalensis 4 of 5, names means, "man from the Neander Valley" in Germany where they were found. They co-existed with early modern man.
18b. Homo neanderthalensis They were able to adapt to the ice age. Bipedal, lived in larger communities, cared for each other, first to bury their dead. Wore clothes, made complex tools (rock-tipped spears, knives). Lived and hunted in organized groups.
19a. Homo sapiens 5 of 5, their names means, "wise man", considered early modern man. Spread out all over the world thanks to the ice age.
19b. Homo sapiens Bipedal, created the most advanced tools (spear thrower, bow/arrow) to hunt from a safe distance. Built semi-permanent shelter and wore fitted clothing. Created art and musical instruments.
20. Specialization When people don't have to hunt and gather all the time, they became really good at one task like making spear throwers or weaving baskets. Allows a community to organize themselves more efficiently.
20. Benefits of Specialization People became better at one job. Allowed more time to make technological advancements. Allowed an increased surplus of products and allowed trading with others.
24a. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. 1st to make stone tools - they allowed hominids to access more food energy and allowed hominids to survive climate change.
24b. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. Mastered fire - allowed hominids to stay warm, cook food, and hunt more effectively.
24c. Name a major achievement of the Old Stone Age and explain its importance. Began to create temporary shelters which protected hominids from weather and predators.
25a. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people hunted and gathered and then during the Neolithic Age people relied on farming and domesticating animals for food.
25b. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people moved around as nomads following their food source and then during the Neolithic Age people lived in more permanent settlements.
25c. Identify a difference between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age During the Paleolithic Age people had to be good at many jobs including hunting and making stone tools and then during the Neolithic Age people could specialize in one job like tool making or basket weaving.