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Skel Rad 2 Midterm

NWHSU Skel Rad 2 Midterm

QuestionAnswer
Define bone scan (bone scintigraphy)? Very sensitive, not specific and is helpful for determining areas of metabolic activity.
What is injected into patient during a bone scan? Technetium Tc 99M - radioactive tracer
What are bone scans useful for detecting? Acute and stress fracture, Metastasis, Infection, Pagets disease, Child abuse
PET scan stands for? Positron Emission Tomography
What is injected into patient during a PET scan? Signal emitting tagged glucose (FDG)
PET scans are sensitive for detecting what? Cancer - the glucose travels to metabolically active areas)
CT scan stands for? Computed Tomography
Ct scan uses ___radiation to obtain ___ sectional images of the body? Ionizing. Cross
What are CT scans useful for detecting? Fine bony detail, cortical bone, Abdominal stuff (thorax, liver, urinary tract, GI tract, acute head trauma (up to 24 hours)
What does DEXA stand for? Dual Energy X-ray absorption
DEXA is most widely used method to measure? Bone mineral density
DEXA is useful for detecting? Small changes in bone mass
What is a DEXA that scans the spine? Central DEXA
What is a DEXA that scans the extremities? Peripheral DEXA
Define T score? DEXA score- amount of bone compared to a young adult, same gender, with peak bone mass.
T score of -1 means? Normal
T score of -1 to -2.5 means? Osteopenia
T score of -2.5 and lower means? Osteoporosis
Define Z score? DEXA score- Compared the amount of bone with other people in the same age group and of the same size and gender
What do Z scores NOT diagnose? Osteoporosis
What makes an MRI work? Angular momentum makes atoms spin
What atom is MRIs favorite? Hydrogen
What happens to protons within our body during an MRI? When placed in an external magnectic field the protons will line up in horizontal plane and then into a transverse plane
Define T1 weighted image? Short TR/TE, less than 1000msec/20msecs. Good anatomical detail. FAT is BRIGHT (water is dark)
Define TE? Echo time. Time between RF pulse and measurement of energy released.
Define T2 weighted image? Long TR/TE, more than 1000msec/100msec. Myelographic effect. WATER is BRIGHT (fat is dark)
Define density ? Is a measure of the amount of black metallic silver deposited on the emulsion as a result of exposure and development. Measure of the quantity of radiation absorbed by the film. BLACK
What are the 4 factors that control density? mA, time, source image distance, tube film distance
Define contrast? Represents the distribution of black metallic silver over the film. Is the degree of difference between light and dark areas. SHADES OF GRAY
What is the factor that controls contrast? kVp
When you go from a 14x17 film to a spot film, you need to increase your mAs ___ 2x
O-C1: Define Platybasia? Flattening of the skull base.
O-C1:What are the complications of Platybasia? Impingement of neural and vascular structures, syringomyelia of the cord, infraction of the brainstem, Arnold-Chiari malformation.
O-C1:Associated anomalies of Platybasia? Basilar invagination, occipitalization, block vertebrae, Klippel-Feil syndrome.
O-C1:What type of scan will evaluate for Playtybasia? MRI
O-C1:Define Basilar Impression? Superior position of the upper cervical vertebrae with relation to the skull (too close)
O-C1: Primary basilar impression? Congenital. Associated with occipitalization of the atlas, spina bifida occulta of atlas, odontoid abnormalities, cervical block vertbrae
O-C1: Secondary basilar impression? Occurs as a result of bone softening condition, such as Pagets disease, osteomalacia, fibrous dyplasia, rheumatoid arthristis
O-C1: Symptoms of basilar impression? May experience in 3rd/4th decade of life. Occipital headaches, visual disturbances, dysphagia, facial pain, unsteady gait
O-C1:What would check on an xray for basilar impression? McGregors Line and Chamberlains Line
O-C1:Arnold-Chiari Malformation-Type I, define? Most common, most common in females. Headaches and neck pain present
O-C1:Arnold-Chiari Malformation-Type I diagnosing? CT or MRI. Findings are low lying cerebellar tonsils, triangular shaped cerebellar tonsils, and kinking of the 4th ventricle. Xrays may show occipitalization.
O-C1:Treatment of Arnold-Chiari? Enlargement of the posterior fossa.
Atlas: Occipitalization of atlas, define? Congenial synostosis of the atlas to the occiput secondary to failure of separation of the most inferior occipital sclerotome. More common in MALES
Atlas: Symptoms of occipitalization of atlas? Low hairline, short neck, restricted ROM, neck pain
Atlas: How can I adjust someone with occipitalization of the atlas? Alteration of adjustment should be considered as rotation and extension may compromise cord and arteries.
Atlas:Define Occipital vertebrae? When the inferior somites fail to unite to the others, it remains as an extra ossicle
Atlas:Define 3rd condyle? Midline bony projection bridging the anterior aspect of the foramen magnum with the apex of the odontoid process or the anterior arch of the atlas.
Atlas:Define paramastoid? Originates at the jugular process of the occiput and articulates with the TP of C1
Atlas:Define paracondylar? Originates slightly medial and anterior to the paramastoid process and articulates with the TP of C1
Atlas:Define Epitransverse Process? Orginates from the TP of C1, projects superiorly and articulates with the occiput
Atlas: Paramastoid, paracondylar, epitransverse process are? Congenital bony bars that bridge the occiput to the transverse process of the atlas
Define TR? Pepetition time. Time between radiofrequency pulses.
Define Atlanto-occipital Ossicles? AKA: pro-atlas ossicles/atlanto-occipital ossicles/process of kerckring Small bony ossicles occuring in the atlanto-occipital space. May lie anterioly, laterally, or posteriorly
Define Agenesis of the posterior Arch of Atlas? Cleft in the posterior a rch/unilateral agenesis/complete agenesis. Dense CT present.
If the posterior arch joins the spinous of C2, it produces a? Mega-spinous
Hypoplasia of the posterior arch may present as a thin arch or a short arch, this is called? Central stenosis
Define posterior spina bifida occulta of atlas? Posterior spondyloschisis of the atlas. Failure of midline ossification of the neural arch which causes
What would a radiograph show an absence of in posterior spina bifida occulta? Spinolaminar junction line
On a lateral cervical view, what would you notice about the anterior tubercle in anterior spina bifida occulta of the atlas? Anterior tubercle appears bulbous and indistinct.
When anterior spina bifida occulta is associated with posterior spina bifida, what might occur? May be an offset of the lateral masses of C1 on C2
Created by: wizdumbslp