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APUSH Ch.10-12 Terms

TermDefinition
Bill of Rights popular term for the first ten Amendments to the U.S Constitution. The Amendments secure key rights for individuals and reserve to the states all powers not explicitly delegated or prohibited by the Constitution.
Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the federal legal system, establishing the Supreme Court, federal district and circuit courts, and the office of the attorney general.
Funding at Par payment of debts, such as government bonds, at face value. In 1790, Alexander Hamilton proposed that the federal government pay its Revolutionary war debts in full in order to bolster the nation's credit.
Assumption transfer of debt from one party to another. In order to strengthen the union, the federal government assumed states' Revolutionary War debts in 1790, thereby tying the interests of wealthy lenders with those of the national government.
Tariff tax levied on imports. Traditionally, manufacturers support tariff as protective and revenue-raising measures, while agricultural interests, dependent on world markets, oppose high tariffs.
Bank of the United States chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton's financial program, the bank printed paper money and served as a depository for Treasury funds. It drew opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who argued that the bank was unconstitutional.
Whiskey Rebellion popular uprising distillers in southwestern Pennsylvania in to an excise tax on whiskey. In a show of strength and resolve by the new central government, Washington put down the rebellion with militia drawn from several states.
Reign of Terror ten-month period of brutal repression when some 40,000 individuals were executed as enemies of the French Revolution.
Neutrality Proclamation issued by George Washington, it proclaimed America's formal neutrality in escalating conflict between England and France, a statement that enraged pro-French Jeffersonians.
Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indian tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory.
Treaty of Greenville The Treaty of Greenville, 1795 is a peace treaty between the US and various Indian Tribes. Included are the Wyandots, Delaware, Miamis, Eel Rivers Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias.
Jay's Treaty On 11/19/94 representatives of the US & Great Britain signed Jay’s Treaty, which sought to settle crazy issues between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence.
Pinckney's Treaty signed with Spain which, fearing an Anglo-American alliance, granted Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and the disputed territory of Florida.
Farewell Address George Washington's address at the end of his presidency, warning against "permanent alliances" with other nations. Washington did not oppose all union, but thought that the young, raw nation should forge unions only on a temporary basis.
XYZ Affair diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.
Convention of 1800 agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The problems posed by America's peacetime union with France backed to Americans' old conflict to entangling union with foreign powers
Alien Laws acts passed by a Federalist Congress raising the residency requirement for citizenship fourteen years and granting the president the power to deport dangerous foreigners in times of peace.
Sedition Act enacted by the Federalist Congress in an effort to clamp down on Jeffersonian opposition, the law made anyone convicted of defaming government officials or interfering with government policies liable to imprisonment and a heavy fine.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions written by James Madison and adopted by the legislature of Virginia in 1798; compact theory; written to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts; later used by southerners to support secession
Revolution of 1800 Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution.
Patronage granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
Judiciary of 1801 One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress.
Midnight judges The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Marbury v. Madison The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution
Tripolitan War Jefferson reluctantly rose to the challenge and sent the U.S. Marine Corps to fight; after four years, Jefferson extorted a peace treaty with a bargain price of $60,000 which was used as ransom payments for captured Americans
Louisiana Purchase The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America.
Corps of Discovery Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members
Orders in Council British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods
Impressment British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Chesapeake affair 1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake.
Embargo Act Act that forbade the export of goods from the U.S. in order to hurt the economies of the warring nations of France and Britain. The act slowed the economy of New England and the south Signed by Jefferson in 1807.
Macon's Bill No. 2 1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first.
War hawks Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to take over British land in North America and expand
Battle of Tippecanoe Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812
Sally Hemings a slave owned by Thomas Jefferson, who, according to some, was the mother of some of Thomas Jefferson's children
Albert Gallatin He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.
Orders in Council British laws passed that closed European ports under French control to foreign imports
Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the US chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 Virginian, architect, author, governor, and president. Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Alexander Hamilton Washington's Secretary of Treasury, Federalist, urged paying off national debt - whiskey tax, national treasury, financial plan
French Revolution France threw back Austrian armies, declared itself a republic, Feds. nervous that they would have to have some bloodshed in US as well
Federalists Hamilton, national bank, financial plan, federal gov., mostly pro-British, mostly merchants, manufacturers, shippers
Henry Knox Washington's Secretary of War
Jeffersonian Republicans strict interpretation, states' rights, no national bank, mostly pro-French, mostly farmers
John Adams became 2nd president, Jefferson = his vice, hated Hamilton, sensitive situation with France
John Jay first Chief Justice of US, Jay's Treaty
Aaron Burr tied with Jefferson for president --> lost, killed Hamilton in duel while scheming with Feds. to make NY & New England secede, arrested for treason
Non-Intercourse Act act that repealed the Embargo Act, except for trade to Britain and France
impeachment power of House of Rep. to make a legal statement of charges against an official
James Madison became president in 1809, didn't appear a strong leader, tricked by Napoleon into War of 1812
John Marshall Chief Justice, Supreme Court Justice, Fed., pro-capitalist, helped bolster power of gov. at expense of states
Macon's Bill #2 1810: permitted US trade with whole world and promised US restoration of trade to France/England if either dropped their commercial restrictions --> duped by Napoleon
Sacajawea Shoshoni First American woman who aided Lewis & Clark
James Wilkinson military governor of Louisiana Territory who plotted with Aaron Burr in his conspiracies, but deserted him in the end
Impressment the practice by the British and others of seizing ships and forcing their sailors to work and fight
Tecumseh Leader of First American tribes who tried to fight American settlers by unifying and organizing the Indians
Samuel Chase justice of supreme court that was extremely disliked was almost impeached as revenge of the jeffersonians after marbury vs Madison
Robert Livingston He bought New Orleans & all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for $15 mil. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal
Toussant L'Ouverture was a freed slave that led a revolt in Santo Domingo
Merriweather Lewis Jefferson's personal secretary that was sent to explore Louisiana,with William Clark.
William Clark young army officer who Jefferson sent to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase with Merriweather Lewis
Oliver Hazard Perry United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie during the War of 1812
Francis Scott Key United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812. The poem later became the Star Spangled Banner.
Missouri Compromise Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
War of 1812 War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
McCulloh v. Maryland (1819) case that established the principle that the federal government was supreme over the state
Tariff of 1816 This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
American System an economic regime by Henry Clay created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the U.S prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize & become an economic power
Gibbons v. Ogden involved N.Y. trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between N.Y. and N.J. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court,reminded the state of N.Y. that the Constitution gives Congress the control of interstate commerce.
Monroe Doctrine A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Treaty of Ghent December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans Jackson led a battle that occurred when British troops attacked U.S. soldiers in New Orleans on January 8, 1815; the War of 1812 had officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Ghent in December, 1814, but word had not yet reached the U.S.
Era of Good Feelings There was only one political party (Republicans)—supposedly, the nation was united rather than split; There was an upsweep of nationalism after the war
Created by: danat214