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Env Soc Final

Environmental Sociology

What is environmental sociology? the study of humans interacting with the environment
Paradox 1 while capitalist growth and expansion are necessary components of contemporary economic organization and could be the means through which to solve our environmental problems, capitalist expansion and growth have historically been the cause of our problems
Jevon’s Paradox: Fuel Efficiency the more efficient you make things, the more likely we are to use them
IPAT model Environmental impact = population x affluence x technology
(nature as a social construct) Demeritt, Smith, and Cronan nature doesn’t exist apart from social constructions. When the European settlers showed up, the Native Americans had managed the forests so that certain species dominated others.
(nature as a social construct) Guha, Peluso, Cronan, and Haraway there are ideological aspects to the social construction of nature (where the wild things are, maine - a place to escape, people in appalachia vs new yorkers views of what nature is)
basis of scientific knowledge physical obj. exist independently of our knowledge of them. they can be observed directly so that knowledge of the world can be tested empirically by immediate reference to actuality. truth = correspondence twixt our ideas about physical env. & how it is
If nature is socially constructed its existence isnt ind. of our knowledge so nature cant provide an ind foundation against which to test our knowledge claims. even if an ind. physical world exists our empirical obs are still biased by our socially constructed preconceptions of it
Social Construction of nature as political refutation IQ and genetics. Nothing natural about IQs, is a social construct. There are confounding factors.
Social Construction of nature as a philosophical critique o a means to question the existing empirics o question what people are bringing into a study o we tend to believe scientists because they have a phd, but we need to take into consideration their preexisting social beliefs
SCN - pro politically progressive & empowering. Allows us to see the power structures and hierarchies that define nature and the natural in ways that favor certain interests over others o personal responsibility o better research with awareness
SCN - con Could lead to denial that nature & env problems are real. Can be politically dangerous & cause us to not push science forward to solve our problems (what’s the point if we don’t have a ctrl group?) Or that we should continue our behavior bc its not "real"
Science and the Social Construction of nature often fail to represent the active or generative capacities of biophysical processes of nature (how things can change by themselves). Move quickly from concrete to universal, not differentiating between types of nature (when does it become political?)
The Sociomaterial and the Socionatural How natural or material affects the social, hierarchies and social change. How is it that one country achieves hegemony? Manipulating nature to achieve their ends, bring more nature further away economies of scale & diseconomies of space
what is a benefit of a sociomaterial approach where in some ways the material is privileged? How would such an approach aid everyday people or everyday problems? • Better appreciation/respect for nature, has its own inherent worth, ability to resist human influence • Understand that some things are better left alone, because although nature doesn’t have a plan, it has a system.
what are the benefits of social constructivist approach to nature? How would such an approach aid everyday people or everyday problems? • Take responsibility for things like climate change • Be better stewards • Not feeling insignificant, direct correlation
The treadmill of production theory economic growth -> new technologies -> required more energy -> more raw materials -> and more chemicals -> cycle starts again
The drive for growth – the idea behind the capitalist economy Barometer of well-being. The growing level of capital available for investment and the changing ways in which this money was and could be used led to a substantial increase
Sunk capital the need to recuperate cost of technology drives producers to use it as much as possible
Results of treadmill of production the negative side effects of a transaction that is not included in the cost of production, and is pushed off onto those who do not directly benefit from the transaction
Contradictions of Capitalism (premise) capitalism is inherently a crisis ridden form of socioeconomic organization
The first contradiction of capitalism businesses attempt to maximize profit by getting the most from their workers for the least $ -> workers produce lots of goods for little $ -> businesses are unable to find anyone to buy the produced goods -> crisis of overproduction
2nd contradiction of capitalism - material inputs • Short term view, if they’re something to be used, then there’s no need to preserve them. • Do raw materials have value unless they can be commoditized? • Thought of as limitless, or not thought about at all
2nd contradiction of capitalism - reproduction of human labor o Sick workers aren’t efficient o Human rights concerns o Younger kids have less skills/education
2nd contradiction of capitalism - infrastructure Roads, power lines, the internet, bridges o Means by which they get raw materials in, ship products out o Race to the bottom, looking for the lowest tax rate by location
The second contradiction of capitalism Businesses don't take into account certain factors surrounding the conditions of production (material inputs, reproduction of human labor, and infrastructure)
Why is capitalism still a thing? -we enjoy all the benefits of capitalism, but export most of the negative externalities -paucity of information -the people who are negatively affected don’t have the power to change it
The Metabolic Rift -Marx drawing from Liebig: Capitalist production “disturbs the metabolic interaction between man and the earth” -Metabolic rift observed between • Towne & Country • Colonizer and colonized
Four ways to see Marx & the environment -anti-ecological -gave some ecological insights but was pro-technology -analyzed ecological degradation in agriculture, but this remained largely outside of his main focus -provided a systematic approach to nature and environmental degradation
Three Agricultural Revolutions -16-18 • the Enclosure & shift to Market Based Ag • crop rotation, manuring, drainage, & livestock mgmt -19 (1830-1880) • industrial ag • soil science & fertilizer industry -20 • animals -> machines • Large scale ag (green revolution, feedlots)
Karl Marx & Fred Engels said that Tom & David didn’t account for nature, didn’t see it as related to how we were using the land. Said we’re destroying fertility, so we can then solve the problem since it’s socially constructed. Based in natural/social science.
Tom Ricardo & David Malthus said population is growing too quickly and we’re going to run out of food. Once we degrade the land, we just need to move somewhere else because fertility is a given. Based in speculation.
Justus von Liebig HOLY SHIT he discovered that plants need certain minerals to grow, and that applying fertilizer to soil can help restore it and make it viable
Town & Country -more people moving from the country to the city -bringing food from the country to the city -growing crop nutrients in one place and sending it away, instead of it being a closed system
Unequal ecological exchange – last theory of production link between intl trade and ecological destruction. labor hrs worked does not = price of product, difference = surplus value & goes to the company. rich -> richer at expense of poor. increases in disparity between 1980-2000
Unequal exchange -going against the idea that trade is best for everyone -poor countries get poorer, rich countries get richer -global south, large amounts of cheap labor, agriculture -global north, small amounts of expensive labor, technology
Unequal Ecological Exchange move beyond looking at the value of labor & look at the value of nature too. account for ecological flows & effects on inequality & development. account for effects upon the environment.
Unequal exchange & development Can’t capture value added price if you’re constantly exporting. No opportunity to use materials to develop your own country. Can't determine own development trajectory, dependent on the demands of somebody else & if the demands change you’re screwed
Overpopulation - the Malthusian argument o at some point in time we’re going to reach a point where we can no longer feed everyone o unchecked population growth will lead to hunger, misery, and cause environmental decline and population growth, as the poor struggle to make a livelihood
Overpopulation - the technological critique • human innovation will overcome the environmental problems associated with population o green revolution helped out
Overpopulation - the demographic critique the need to empower women by more closely recognize the value of their work, providing greater opportunities for education & participation in paid work. Education & participation in paid economy are the most consistent factors in reducing fertility rate
Overpopulation - Inequality critique - malnutrition is a problem associated with food distribution and access o little correlation between population density and hunger o more than enough food is produced to feed the world o malnutrition and starvation are linked to power and wealth • famines not caused by a lack of food availability, but by a lack of access
Overpopulation - Inequality critique -the development of underdevelopment Account for history & position within global power hierarchies. Rich & powerful nations have been able to develop by utilizing the resources of other countries, leaving them without natural resources/power, thus in a state of perpetual underdevelopment
Green & Gene revolutions Green = 50s-80s, trying to spread industrialized ag. to increase global food production. Gene = splicing desirable gene traits. Lead to pest resistant and herbicide resistant plants, # of cereal crops shot up. Lots of pesticides and water used
effects of Green & Gene revolutions • loss of biodiversity • decreasing soil fertility o runoff and pollution • super weeds and insects o monocropping, you’re more likely to wipe out the crop all at once o adaptation leads to resistance • increases in chemical runoff
food aid (PL 480) Post WWII, we needed to get rid of surplus. Said it was "good will" but it was really just an intl market for US farmers, creating a worldwide dependence on US crops
structural adjustment programs Showed up 1950s-80s. We said we’d give loans to service their debt as long as they accepted food aid or bought our food. Then in 80s, loans only if they opened free trade with us. We subsidize farming, sell at a cheaper price.
Food & Inequality • in the food system o power over the food system in the hands of few • corporate consolidation • large scale industrialized farms • for the individual o less choice o less nutrition o obesity epidemic
Conundrum of consumption limiting the consumerist lifestyle to those who have already attained it is not politically possible or morally defensible. But extending it to all people may lead to ecological collapse.
Why do we consume? -a need • Basic needs, food, etc -a means to connect and belong • If your friends can afford stuff that you cant you feel disjointed -part of one’s identity • your car says something about you -a means to demonstrate power • conspicuous consumption
The “work-and-spend” cycle you need things to get a job/keep your job. -because of the way we’ve organized society, we don’t have time/desire to grow of make food ourselves. -no time to put into environmental sustainability -consumption is not always an individual action
“Goods make and maintain social relationships” Evoke feelings and mean different things to different people. Make you feel connected (band shirt, wedding ring, party) show how not only it’s related to the people in the immediate community, but perhaps in a regional or global community
The New Consumerism growth in income inequality - people at top buying luxury items Primary social site shifts from neighborhood to workplace Workpace socializing changes - keeping up with boss Influence of TV & media - gap between aspirations and ability to consume
The Theory of the Leisure Class (modern culture revolves around attempts to signal out comparative degrees of power, both social and environmental) -Conspicuous consumption -Conspicuous leisure -Conspicuous waste -Vicarious consumption, vicarious leisure, and vicarious waste.
Rational Risk Assessment -as individuals we make decisions by comparing our best knowledge about the rates and probabilities of hazards and choose the least dangerous ones in order to best navigate risk.
The Risk Society -shift from class-based to risk-based -now conflicts not over distribution of ‘goods,’ but over distribution of ‘bads’ -‘bads’ more universal and hard to escape -shift fed by distrust in science -Reflexive modernization – from fear to solution?
Normal Accident Theory accidents in complex systems are unavoidable because innocent and seemingly unrelated events accumulate and align to create major malfunctions with disastrous results
What is an accident? -an incident: an event that disrupts a system • parts (smallest component of a system) • units (collection of parts) -an accident: an event prevents the system from functioning • subsystems (collection of units) • system (collection of subsystems)
Victims of accidents -1st party – the operators of systems -2nd party – non-operating systems personnel. Users of and worker in a system who exercise no control over its operation -3rd party - innocent bystanders -4th party victims - fetuses and future generations
Interactions and systems -lin int – expected & familiar production & maintenance -comp int – unfamiliar, unplanned, unexpected lin sys – cmpnts are easy to separate, substitutable, little feedback comp sys – cmpnts are hard to pull apart, not substitutable, lots of feedback
Coupling -loose – if one piece fails, the system still operates with little loss in efficiency -tight – if one piece fails, significant stress is put on other parts of the system, and perhaps the whole system
Normal accidents -interaction of multiple failures that are not in a direct operational sequence -the failures have a significant degree of incomprehensibility -inherent in complex systems with tightly coupled interactions
Seeing natural disasters as natural causes us to… -over look how natural events (floods, wildfires, hurricanes, etc.) are not necessarily disasters -overlook how human actions may have influenced or created a natural disaster
Ecology of Affluence -human/nature dichotomy - nature as separate/a luxury -parasitic -origins - conservation movement, nature as a place you go to escape/enjoy -organization - top down, politicized, branded, formal, $ based, corporate, big lobbyists
Environmentalism of the Poor -human/nature dichotomy - nature as one in the same/necessary -symbiotic -origins - privatized water sources, taking action bc impingement on livelihood -organization - bottom up, direct, grassroots based, less publicized, less centrally organized
Inglehardt's Postmaterialsm - the argument younger generations shifting away from “concerns about economic and physical security” & are more concerned with “freedom, self-expression, and the quality of life” •same time as new consumerism & risk society •Econ. production -> post material values
Inglehardt's Postmaterialsm - the underlying premise • we are better off today than before. As a result, we can afford to care about the environment • the environmentalism of the poor isn’t represented and contradicts the work and spend cycle a bit
where the materialist to post-materialist shift has occurred, support for the environmental movement and environmental action tend to be stronger • study only over 10 years • correlation doesn’t necessarily equal causation • study conducted in a time of economic prosperity, might not be an overall societal shift, but a shift in response to GDP • small shift • more fluid than linear
Potential problems • environmentalism of the poor in the developing world is more materialist • greater environmental concern amongst the poor in the places like the United States • recent shifts may tend to go against Inglehart’s previous findings
The Paradigm Shift Thesis (Catton & Dunlap) • as the material effects of our system of production become more apparent, people have become more environmentally aware
The Paradigm Shift Thesis - the argument • a shift is occurring from HEP to NEP • HEP – humans are exempt from the natural laws & ecological constraints that govern other species • NEP – humans are a part of nature & need to live within ecological world
The Paradigm Shift Thesis - the study • examined the difference between o environmental values – the way people think it ought to be o environmental beliefs – the way people think it is
Ecological Modernization (Mol & Spaargaren) • the recognition of env problems is starting to reshape the institutions & everyday social practices of modernity • material conditions (environmental problems) shape ideas which in turn reshape material conditions (solve & resolve ecological problems)
Ecological rationalization (drives ecological modernization) environmental problems force us to increasingly consider more than economic, technological, political, and social reason for making decisions (montreal protocol)
Ecological Modernization - problems • promotes the causes of environmental problems as solutions • hobbled by an unflappable sense of technological, market, and governmental optimism • is only realistic in some places
The Denial Machine (Dunlap & McCright) • evidentiary basis of global warming is weak, if not wrong • net effect of global warming will be good for life, health, and agriculture • policies to ameliorate global warming will do more harm than good o “we’re going to destroy jobs”
The Denial Machine - the argument • the conservative movement is a force of anti-reflexivity attempting to protect the industrial capitalist order of simple modernization o something that’s not allowing us to reflect on our ecological harm
Luke’s three dimensions of power Decision making: protect subjective interest through direct conflict Non-decision making: confining the scope of decision-making to only issues that don’t seriously challenge their subjective interests Shape desires: prevent observable conflict from ari
the non-decision Making technique • obfuscate, misrepresent, manipulate, and suppress the results of scientific research • Intimidate or threaten to sanction individual scientists • Invoke existing rules or create new procedures in the political system • Invoke existing bias in media
A Climate of Injustice (Roberts and Parks) Inequality drives the non-cooperation behavior observed between the Global North and Global South in climate change negotiations
Inequality aspects -Feedback loops -triple inequality •Responsibility - developed countries = big footprints •Vulnerability - low risk for those responsible •Mitigation - who's going to pay? GS doesnt have resources. GN wont be affected as much.
Inequality - development & sustainability Trade organizations favor GN (like trade barrier issue). Different priorities in GN vs GS. GN is like yo invest in clean energy and GS is like but we need food and potable water first.
Inequality - trust, worldviews, and beliefs  GS doesn’t trust GN for historical reasons.  Not enough cheese in my cheesy breadsticks < Please give us water
Indirect causal pathway NS inequality -> structuralist worldviews/causal beliefs -> lack of reciprocity/generalized mistrust -> divergent and unstable expectations -> (emotional responses, inconsistent principled beliefs, risk aversion, zero-sum mentality) -> (non-) cooperation
Direct causal pathway o North-south inequality -> Lack of capacity -> (Non-) Cooperation
Denial -Socially organized • “everything is fine” • It’s a national problem -Individual • “we don’t really want to know” • the failure to act upon their knowledge • I can’t do anything about it anyway -Outright • “climate change isn’t real”
Optical Socialization -socially organized denial, the decision about what to see -dictated by culture what you’re allowed to focus on
Perspectival Selectivity -maybe I’m contributing to this problem, but America is way worse -socialized, also individual rationality
Greenwashing & Green Markets (Adrianne Parr) The phenomena of socially and environmentally destructive corporations attempting to preserve and expand their markets or power by posing as friends of the earth
SRI (socially responsible investing) Invest in green companies, divest in fossil fuels. Could be hard for individuals who don't always have a choice.
Ecobranding (Parr) Idea that capitalist consumption and sustainable living can go hand in hand…When a company or producer is making goods in order to actually create a more sustainable society.
coercive power takes control of the human psyche (usually the producer). Focuses upon idealist branding. The value of the product being green is only in your perception of it being green. Not necessarily as important if the product is green. Greenwashing.
affective power empowers social energies/makes a person feel as if they are involved in making a product. Greenwashing and ecobranding. Power held by consumers and vendors/producers. Focused upon a realist notion of branding. Greenness is grounded in use of the product.
The Sustainability Culture -political conception of sustainable living that struggles over the meaning and practice of sustainability -consumers and producers must be involved -overlaps a little with Ecological Modernization
Market rules and commodification -supply and demand, self regulating -market types are anti-subsidies, trade barriers -The invisible hand and the free market • self-regulation through supply and demand or a form of market regulation
Commodity something produced for sale on the market. Labor embedded into it. Free market surrounded by regulations which dictate how it works.
A fictitious commodity (Polanyi 1944) • things not produced for sale but are still sold (labor, money, and natural resources). • We must protect these things or markets will fail • Things like property rights control fictitious commodities
Neoliberalization -the extension, intensification, and acceleration of market-based forms of competition and commodification to previously excluded or insulated realms of political and economic life -something only becomes wealth when it becomes privatized
Privatization o When clear private property right are assigned to forms of nature that were previously state-owned, un-owned, and communally owned
Marketization o When forms of nature that were previously insulated from full-fledged market exchange are placed within the realms of self-regulating market (privatization of water)
De and re-regulation o When a state is ‘rolled-back’ and minimized, providing individual actors and localities with opportunities to self-govern resources and the environment, but within a centrally prescribed regulatory framework.
The placement of previously state-sponsored services into the hands of civil society o When civil society groups are encouraged to provide the insulator mechanisms that states once offered, or could offer, in order to offset the negative effects of the aforementioned processes (food pantries example)
Frame analysis • organizations and movements have a discursive frame through which they interpret history. This discursive frame gives a movement or an organization its identity and usually guides its collective actions
Discursive frame analysis • delegitimization of the dominant worldview • creation of a new narrative/discourse which functions to o provide common values o provide rationale for participating o resocialize members • conflict with the dominant worldview -> collective action
Problems with discursively framed groups o limits alternatives (too narrow, critical of other groups) o can be exclusive
Resource Mobilization Theory the capacities of a social movement or organization are influenced by material resources -social movements should be understood in terms of conflict -success measured by acceptance of ideas into the mainstream and/or by increased levels of resources
Historical analysis movements and organizations form in response to general social patterns and at specific historical moments -potential problems – when moment is over, so is the movement
Somali Pirates • Somali govt collapsed in 1991 • European ships dumped nuclear waste and heavy metals • European ships also illegally fishing off Somali coast • 70% of Somali supports piracy as a means of national defense in their country’s territorial waters
Environmental Inequality • Occurs when a specific social group is disproportionately affected by environmental hazards
dynamics that create and maintain environmental inequality • market push env risks onto those least able to resist o pollute in places with lower land value • inequalities unfold w/in historical legacy of institutional racism o segregated areas -> minorities still in places with lower land values.
Environmental racism -racial discrimination in environmental policy making -racial discrimination in the enforcement of environmental laws and regulations -targeting of community of colors for toxic facilities -excluding people of color from leadership in ecology movements
Environmental Justice • all people and communities are entitled to equal protection of environmental and public health laws and regulations • organized in the late 1970s and early 1980s from grassroots organizations
Ideas of Env Justice •All individuals have right to env protection. •Eliminate threat before harm happens. •Shifts burden so polluters have to prove they're not discriminating. •Places weight on stats, not intent "I didnt mean to" •Whoever's fault it is has to fix it.
Env Justice results -natl • EPA recognizes envl racism • fed acts to address env justice in minority & low-income pops -local • shutting down incinerators • closing landfills • better containing existing risks -litigation •civil rights act •claims based on intent
Christianity & Environmental Domination (Weber) • human beings are not inherently driven to earn more & more money so why do we work so hard to make more money than we need?
If humans are not inherently driven to make more money, why do we work so hard to make more money than we need? If people all saw you doing good things, they thought you were predestined to go to heaven, and you could pacify your own conscience. Work, denial, and rationalization Moral unrest in early Protestantism, worry about whether you’d get into heaven or not.
Protestant work ethic Protestant work ethic inundated the capitalism economic life and serves as the foundation for our system of rewards. • this work ethic, now secularized, spins the treadmills of production and consumption faster and faster
Christianity & Environmental Domination • technological advancements, such as the moldboard plough, worked in unison with the ideologies of Christianity to promote the domination of humans over nature. Before, pagans, nature was spiritual. Dominion. Heaven far away.
"Green Christianity" Noah as caretaker. Covenant (rainbow) with man & animals. Nature as a gift from God to protect. Don't play God with GMOs.
Eastern religions • Hinduism – polytheists, but unite similar to Christian trinity • Buddhism – no belief in personal (or impersonal) God • No one to really assign dominion • Tao – comparison instead of contrast, inaction instead of action, still hierarchy of thinking.
Patriarchy & the Environment Women seen as more natural (reproductive), nature/nurture. Societal taboo on traditional female roles in public spaces. Men associated with production, public, transformation, rationality.
Rachel Carson • tried to get people to see nature as home • see people (all people) as interwoven with nature • Professionalization of environmental groups pushed out women in favor of white men. Shifted to be more concerned about preserving things for human use.
Ecofeminism • the subjugation of women and the domination of nature are connected and the oppression of one cannot be eliminated without also eliminating the oppression of the other. Descartes separation of biology and rationality lead to more dualisms
cultural ecofeminism • women have a biological connection to nature • the emancipation of nature and women comes through ending hierarchal structure of power based in patriarchy
socialist ecofeminism •rejects the idea that women have a greater connection to nature •oppression of women & nature is a result of capitalist patriarchy •emancipation of both = a reorganization of society to one based on sustainable development, not $
Feminist Environmentalism (Bina Agarwal 1992) • to understand the relationship between women and nature we need to understand the historical and geographical conditions in which they exist (production, reproduction, distribution). Gendered relations dictate interactions/knowledge. Some movements gend
Poststructural Feminism (Butler & Haraway) categories constructed & stabilized • categories are constructed & stabilized by culture norms, but can be changed bc theyre made up • some cultural processes mistaken for natural ones (not self evident)
Social Ecology (Murray Bookchin) • see the world & think through problems in a derivative & developmental way • evolutionary drama – humans adapting to/changing env • cities natural bc they wouldn’t exist without human development • we see nature as what it is not what it has been
first nature and second nature • first nature – biotic o ants and stuff o more predictable, changes very little over time • second nature – social o human nature o has changed very rapidly
the history of nature and domination • in preliterate societies, nature had no meaning. It was not perceived of as a separate thing. Humans dominating humans is linked to humans dominating nature
Social hierarchy and domination Lineage - people moved from taking care of their families to being exclusionist of outsiders Gender - was slight role separation but cohesion, then grew apart Age - elderly needed for knowledge, then old people had to assert their importance or die
Markets, Domination, and Hierarchy • Ancient markets – medium of exchange o Ancient Greek religion rejected extravagant wants o No growth imperative • Capitalist markets – medium of profit o Less religious, less unions o Shift to marketplace, rise of class based dynamic
The Ecological Society Elimination of Hierarchy and Domination • if we don’t understand everything together, we can’t eliminate these sorts of things, and if we don’t eliminate them all together we won’t be able to make it to an ecological society
The elimination of private property & participatory democracy • state ownership of property is still private property • instead it should be owned by communities of users of that property (municipalization of property). • Participatory democracy is like town hall meetings
Pachakuti a profound transformation in which everything changes. pacha - time/space/being. kuti - to return.
What is Going On: A Dual Crisis -a hegemonic crisis attached to the neoliberal model of societal organization -how we perceive modernity, technology, etc all from colonialism. Only 1 way of seeing the universe. Idea that humans have domain over non-humans & some humans> other humans.
A Dual Shift -an alternative modernity: anti-neoliberal development model • bring the state back into ownership of things -decolonization: transforming dominant worldview • indigenous peoples’ narratives – to see the world as reciprocal, to reverse hegemony
Bolivia today (3 competing projects) •Elite Project - maintaining neoliberal ideas (colonialism, states rights) •MAS project - alternative modernization, state, small business, mult invest •Indigenous Political Culture Project - people mobilized as municipality, communal, cultural pluralsm
if people are the problem, what is the cause of our contemporary environmental crisis? Population - malthusian argument Affluence - Veblen's conspicuous consumption Technology - rational risk assessment or Jevon's paradox
if people are the problem, what is the fix for our contemporary environmental crisis? Population - birth control Affluence - make conspicuously environmentally friendly behaviors the new standard Technology - make green economically viable. ecological modernization. make better risk environment
What is the system? Feudal peasants, primitive accumulation & formal subsumption (same work in factory), expanded reproduction & real subsumption (work to fit system), monopoly capitalism, crisis (20s, 80s), Banks, Crisis (30s, 00s), expansion & intensification of capitalism
• If capitalism is a crisis ridden form of socioeconomic and environmental organization, what is the cause of the (environmental) crisis? o Treadmill of production o Conditions of production o Unequal ecological exchange o 1st contradiction of capitalism
Can going green fix the system? How so? What type of crisis do different green actions fix? o Treadmill of production - green production, closed loop o 2nd COC - empower workers, growth without waste (dematerialize, move to online, local food systems) o UEE - neg externalities o End denial machine o Paradigm shift EcMod through green markets
Individual & Systemic Change (A Pachakuti, Social Ecology, Ecofeminism)
Created by: haleyBUGoxox