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US History Chapter 3

Mrs. Hinton's US History Class

At the height of their power, how many colonies did Britain control at one time? 33 colonies
Who was Thomas Colbert under and what was his job? King Louis XIV and he was a finance minister
What is mercantilism? a theory which said that a country's ultimate goal was self-sufficiency and that all countries were in a competition to acquire the most gold and silver
What is the USA's biggest dependency? Oil
What were the last places to be colonized? Africa and southeast Asia
Last colonial empire? Ottoman Empire
What is imperialism? Establishing colonies to increase power
What is a cash crop? a crop grown for sale rather than for the farmer's own use
Triangular trade? merchants carried rum and other goods from New England to Africa; in Africa they traded their merchandise for enslaved people, whom they transported to the West Indies and sold for sugar and molasses; these goods were then shipped to NE to make rum
Stono Rebellion? When slaves gathered at the Stono River southwest of Charles Towne. They killed several planter families and gathered other slaves to join as they marched south to flee to Spanish-held Florida, but white militia stopped them and the rebellion failed
Benjamin Franklin? embraced the notion of obtaining truth through experimentation and reasoning. Demonstrated that lightning was a form of electrical power
Jonathan Edwards? a member of the clergy who sought to revive the intensity and commitment of the original puritan vision
William Pitt? selected by Britain's King George II to run his government in 1757. The British army finally began winning battles, which prompted the Iroquios to support them
Pontiac? the Ottawa leader who led Native Americans to capture eight British forts in the Ohio River Valley and lay siege to two others
George Grenville? financial expert whom King George III chose to serve as a prime minister in 1763
Who revoked the Massachusetts charter and made it a royal colony? Charles II
Who declared the Dominion of New England? James II
What was the Dominion of England? when the land from southern Maine to New Jersey was united into one vast colony
Who did James II pick to rule New England? Sir Edward Andros
What happened in the Glorious Revolution? James II gave up the throne to avoid being beheaded because his wife was catholic and Parliament invited William and Mary (daughter of James II) to rule
According to the theory of _____________, a nation could increase its wealth and power in two ways: by obtaining as much gold and silver as possible, and by establishing a favorable balance of trade, in which it sold more goods than it bought. Mercantilism
What act was intended to crack down on smuggling and to raise money to pay off the war debt? Sugar Act
What was a general search warrant that allowed the British customs officials to search any colonial ship or building they believed to be holding smuggled goods? writ of assistance
Where was the "center of rebellion"? Boston
What were the cash crops of the southern colonies? tobacco, rice, and indigo
What were the three major urban centers in the Northern Colonies? Boston, New York, Philadelphia
What is the negative reaction of established populations against new and different immigrants? nativism
Who invented the lightning rod and bifocals? Benjamin Franklin
Where was the first battle of the French and Indian War fought at? Fort Necessity
What was the French and Indian War fought over? The Ohio River Valley
What British leader "turned the tide" in the French and Indian war? William Pitt
Control of the fort at ________ was critical to guarding the entrance to the St. Lawrence River Louisburg
What generals were killed at the Battle of Quebec in 1759? Marquis de Montcalm and James Wolfe
What treaty ended the French and Indian War? The Treaty of Paris
How many pounds of tea was dumped at the Boston Tea Party? 18,000 lbs
What was the difference between the Townshend Acts and the Stamp Act? The Stamp Act was a direct tax, while the Townshend Acts were an indirect tax
Intolerable Acts? One law shut down the Boston Harbor and the Quartering Act authorized British commanders to house soldiers in vacant private homes and other buildings
Who placed Boston under martial law? (rule imposed by military forces) Thomas Gage
What were minutemen? civilian soldiers
What was the best weapon against British before the Revolution? Boycotting
What was George Washington originally? a surveyor
Who were three British prime ministers? Grenville, Friedrich North, and Charles Townsend
What battle gave the element of surprise? Battle of Trenton
What battle was the turning points for patriots? Battle of Saratoga
Who rode out with Paul Revere to spread the word? Samuel Prescott and William Dawes
What was the name of John Hancock's ship that was confiscated? Liberty
Who was the first to move towards independence? Richard Henry Lee
Where was the goal to divide New England from other states supposed to start? Albany
Who was the British general who did the final surrender at the end of the revolution? General Charles Cornwallis in Yorktown
Marquis de Lafayette? also helped transform the American troops at Valley Forge and led a command in Virginia in the last years of the war
Profiteering? selling scarce goods for a profit
Friedrich von Steuben? helped transform the American troops at Valley Forge
New Massachusetts Charter of 1691? Forced puritans to allow freedom of worship and banned the practice of permitting only puritan church members to vote
Who founded the town of Quebec? Samuel de Champlain
Who explored the St. Lawrence River? Jacques Cartier
What was the first permanent French Settlement? Quebec
Who claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France? Robert Cavelier
Who got what after the Treaty of Paris 1763? Great Britain got all land East of the Mississippi, Spain got French Islands west of the Mississippi, and French got a few small islands near Newfoundland and West Indies
Patrick Henry? adopted a resolution that stated Virginians could only be taxed by the Virginia assembly (only by their representatives)
What two brothers joined forces on Staten Island and sailed into the NY harbor in the summer of 1776 with the largest British expeditionary force ever assembled (32,000 soldiers including thousands of German mercenaries, or soldiers fighting solely for $) General William Howe and Admiral Richard Howe
Battle of Trenton? Washington crosses Delaware on Christmas 1776 to attack and win (killed 30, took 918 captive)
What did Washington do after winning the Battle of Trenton? he marched on to Princeton and also won
Where did Washington winter after Princeton? Morristown, New Jersey
Who actually ends up fighting the Patriots at Albany? Burgoyne
Who takes Philly when he should be at Albany? Howe
Who ends up fighting indians when he should be at Albany? Colonel St. Ledger
Molly Pitcher? carried water pitchers out to soldiers. Real name was Mary Ludwig Hays McCauly
Created by: caitlynbru
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