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USH chapter 30

US History - chapter 30 - Vietnam War Years

What country ruled Vietnam from 1800 to WWII? France
Why were the Vietnam people torked off against the French? They took their farmland and built large plantations, took their rice & rubber
Leader of the Indochinese Communist Party Ho Chi Minh
What organization did the Vietnamese communists (and other orgs) form to get independence? the Vietminh
When did Vietnam become independent? When the Allies defeated Japan in WWII (1945)
When the French troops moved in to take Vietnam back, which part did they take control of? South Vietnam
Who gave Ho Chi Minh $$$ during WWII to fight the Japanese? USA
who gave the French $$$ to fight Ho Chi Minh in the early 1950's ? USA
How did Ike describe the countries on the brink of communism in 1954 ? The Domino Theory
at what outpost did the Vietminh overrun the French in 1954 ? Dien Bien Phu
What was the peace agreement called? Geneva Accords
Where was the line drawn in the Geneva Accords? the 17th parallel
Capital of North Vietnam Hanoi
Capital of South Vietnam Saigon
South Vietnam's president in the 1950's Ngo Dinh Diem
Why was Ho Chi Minh popular among the people? He gave land back to the peasants
Communist opposition group in South Vietnam that assassinated hundreds of South Vietnamese officials Vietcong
Later name of the Vietcong National Liberation Front (NLF)
How did Ho Chi Minh get military supplies to the Vietcong (from North to South Vietnam) ? on the Ho Chi Minh Trail
What countries borders did the Ho Chi Minh Trail go along? Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia
Why were the people not happy with Ngo Dinh Diem? he didn't give their land back (Like HCM did), he restricted Buddhist practices, he moved people out of their villages to protected areas
how was Ngo Dinh Diem taken care of ? US supported military coup killed him (they weren't supposed to)
What did the US Congress adopt to give LBJ military powers in Vietnam ? the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
What led to the Tonkin Gulf Resolution? North Vietnamese attacks on US ships (Maddox and Turner)
What was the vote on the Tonkin Gulf Resolution? 414-0 in the House and 88-2 in the Senate
Who was Secretary of Defense under LBJ? Robert McNamara
Who was Secretary of State under LBJ ? Dean Rusk
Who was the American commander in South Vietnam? General William Westmoreland
What did General Westmoreland think of the S. Vietnam Army ? They 'cannot stand up to the pressure without substantial US combat support on the ground'
What advantages did the Vietcong have in battles? More used to the jungle; they could blend in with citizens, they had tunnels
What was the abbreviation for the South Vietnam army ? ARVN
What was the gasoline-based bomb that the US used to try to expose Vietcong hideouts and tunnels? Napalm
What was the leaf-killing toxic chemical used to kill vegetation? Agent Orange
What did the US launch to try to root out Vietcong supporters? Search-and-destroy missions
How did the US pay for the Vietnam War ? (1) increased taxes (2) cut spending on Great Society
What did critics say was causing the difference between what LBJ's administration said was happening and what was really happening? Credibility gap
Why was US troop morale low ? (1) didn't know where the enemy was (2) land mines (3) Vietcong wouldn't give up, no matter how many killed
Why was the US unsuccessful in winning the 'hearts and minds' of the S. Vietnamese people ? The use of napalm and Agent Orange, and Search-and-Destroy missions
Did the people in the US support the war (through 1967 ?) yes, but they noticed the TV reports were different than what the govn't said was happening
What is the formal name of "The Draft" The Selective Service System"
What was a person called that was exempted from battle because of religious or moral beliefs? Conscientious Objectors (CO's)
What were some ways to avoid Vietnam (legally) ? Join the National Guard or Coast Guard; go to college, claim medical deferments
on average, describe the troops that fought in Vietnam Working class or poorer; more African-Americans; Men
What was the youth movement called in the 1960's ? The New Left
What 'New Left' organization was formed at the Univ of Michigan by Tom Hayden and Al Haber Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
What 'New Left' organization was formed at UC-Berkeley? Free Speech Movement (FSM)
What did the FSM battle, at first ? issues of free speech on college campuses
What change in college deferments did the LBJ administration make in 1966 ? you had to be a student in good academic standing to keep your deferment
What organization called for civil disobedience at Selective Service centers and oounseled students to flee to Canada and Switzerland ? SDS
What was Americans who believed the US should withdraw from Vietnam called ? Doves
What were Americans who believe the US should use greater military force called ? Hawks
What happened January 1968 ? Tet Offensive
Where did Tet Offensive occur ? Cities of South Vietnam
Robert McNamara's replacement Clark Clifford
What did Clark Clifford think of the Vietnam War ? Before: strong supporter of LBJ After: "a sinkhole - no end in sight"
Strong anti-war critic of LBJ that ran for democratic nomination for President in 1968 Eugene McCarthy
Popular democrat that (at first) decided not to run for President for party loyalty reasons Robert Kennedy
Surprise announcement by LBJ in March, 1968 He will not run for reelection
What happened in the Ambassador Hotel (LA) in June 1968 ? Robert Kennedy Assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan
Where was the Democratic National Convention in 1968 ? Chicago
Who were the two main candidates at the Chicago convention ? Eugene McCarthy and Hubert Humphrey
Describe the 1968 Chicago covention Outside: Chaos Inside: Chaos
Who was the democratic nominee of the 1968 Chicago convention? Hubert Humphrey
Who was the Republican nominee for president in 1968 ? Richard Nixon
Who won the presidential election in 1968, against who ? Nixon, over Humphrey and Wallace. (Nixon was helped by Wallace due to taking votes away from HHH)
What was Nixon's plan called to pull out of Vietnam? Vietnamization
Describe Vietnamization US troops leave; South Vietnam troops take on more active combat role.
Nixon's buzzwords for his plan to pull out of Vietnam "Peace with Honor"
Who did Nixon appeal to, to get support for his war policies? The Silent Majority
What event was led my Lt. William Calley ? the My Lai Massacre
What MAJOR military action did Nixon order without the notification of Congress invasion of Cambodia
What did the invasion of Cambodia trigger on college campuses ? Demonstrations; student strike; shootings
At what college campus did National Guard troops shoot at students? Kent State in Ohio (4 dead)
What documents were leaked out in 1971 regarding the government's plans in Vietnam? The Pentagon Papers
What effect did the Pentagon Papers have on public opinion ? confirmed the belief that the government had not been honest about the war intentions
Who was Nixon's top negotiator in Vietnam? Henry Kissinger
Kissinger's famous statement in Oct 1972 "Peace is at hand"
What happened after the US pulled out of South Vietnam ? North Vietnam invaded the south. In April 1975 South Vietnam surrendered "The Fall of Saigon"
Who was president after Nixon, and why ? Gerald Ford, who was Nixon's VP, because Nixon resigned due to Watergate scandal
What was the biggest unintended consequence of the invasion of Cambodia? The Khmer Rouge rose to power
What legislation was passed in response to the Vietnam War? War Powers Act
What 2 major points did the War Powers Act make? (1) President must inform Congress within 48 hours if US troops are sent into a hostile area (2) troops can remain there no longer than 90 days without congressional approval
What great movement of people happened after the Vietnam War ? 1.5 million people fled the country (many were 'boat people') many came to the US
What did the Khmer Rouge do to Cambodia ? Killed 2 million Cambodians; executed many govt officials
Created by: JoeBounda