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Middle East History

Modern History of the Middle East - 1st Quarter

Ottoman Empire Large empire that at one time controlled most of the territory around the Mediterranean Sea; it broke apart after WWI
World War I 1914-1918 war between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers
Central Powers The alliance of Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and other nations
Border lines Boundaries that were redrawn by Britain and France after WWI in the former Ottoman Empire
Ethnic group A group identified on the basis of religion, race, or national origin
Religious group A group with similar religious beliefs
Kurds Ethnic group that lives in the mountains of Turkey, Iraq, and Syria; they were divided up after WWI
Palestine Territory, predominantly held by Arabs, that is now contained by the State of Israel
Jews Group of people who are both an ethnic group and a religious group and follow the teachings of the Torah
Zionism The movement to unite persecuted Jews and settle them in Palestine
Anti-Semitism The hatred of Jews simply because they practiced the Jewish faith
Holocaust Time when 6 million Jews were killed in concentration camps
Jerusalem Capital of Israel; city with sites considered holy by all 3 prominent monotheistic religions
Judaism One of the 3 prominent religions in the Middle East; its teachings are found in the Torah
Christianity One of the 3 prominent religions in the Middle East; its teachings are found in the Bible
Islam One of the 3 prominent religions in the Middle East; its teachings are found in the Quran/Koran
United Nations Organization formed after WWII; group who made the decision to create the State of Israel
Refugees People who are displaced during a conflict; people forced to move out of their homeland to avoid conflict
Arab-Israeli Ongoing conflict over the creation of the state of Israel and the control of territory between Palestinian Arabs and Iraeli Jews
Kuwait Country invaded by Iraq for its oil reserves and its location along the Persian Gulf
Saddam Hussein Leader of Iraq who invaded Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War
Persian Gulf Body of water off the coast of Kuwait used for shipping oil around the world
Operation Desert Storm Time when the US and other members of a coalition came to the aid of Kuwait to remove the Iraqi invaders
Taliban Muslim fundamentalists that took control of the government of Afghanistan and enacted Shariah Law and treated its citizens harshly (especially women)
Al Qaeda Extremist group that practices terrorism; organized the attack on the United States in 2001
September 11th, 2001 Date when the United States was attacked by terrorists using hijacked airplanes
Osama bin Laden Former leader of Al Qaeda; led the 9/11 attack
Afghanistan Country where the Taliban and Al Qaeda were once based
Pakistan Country next to Afghanistan where many Al Qaeda members fled after the US troops came into Afghanistan
Operation Iraqi Freedom US war in Iraq to help establish their new democracy and to prevent the development of chemical and nuclear weapons
Democracy The practice of voting in elections for leaders of a country
Sunni One sect of Islam found mainly in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon
Shia/Shiite One sect of Islam mainly found in Iran
Shariah/Sharia Law Law based strictly on the teachings of Islam
Extremist One who holds especially political views that deviate drastically from traditional beliefs
Fundamentalist One who follows religious teachings very rigidly and strictly
Nationalism The idea that countries are most successful if the people who live there share some common cultural, historical, or religious beliefs
Great Britain Country granted authority to govern Palestine after World War I
1948 The year the State of Israel was established
Britain and France The 2 European countries that divided the Middle East into countries after WWI
Created by: MrsRidley
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