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LD Ch. 18/19 SS

LD Ch. 18 & 19 - Industrialization

What was the first transcontinental railroad like? Stretched from East to West Coast, Was faster, safer and cheaper.
Why was the first transcontinental built? The need to get supplies to others faster, Need to send gold, silver, farm products, and meat, Need to send mail faster and to be able to connect to new states being established.
What were the positive effects of the transcontinental railroad? Stimulated the economy, Created jobs, New ways to manage and control businesses, Increased settlements in the West, Increase in immigration, Laid the foundation for US to become an industrial nation.
What were the negative effects of the transcontinental railroad? Had environmental impacts, forced Native Americans to move onto reservations, killed buffalo and created the Dawes Act.
What were some improvements in Railroads? Standard tracks, Railroad networks, Standard Time Zones, Air Brake, Refrigerated railroad cars, and Sleeping Car
What were railroad barons? Owners of large companies became more powerful and used unfair techniques to earn profits.
What is consolidation? When companies combine and often drive smaller companies out of business.
What is pooling? When several companies secretly agree to divide up business in an area and then fix their prices.
What was the impact of consolidation on the railroad rates? Created rate wars between different companies
What was the impact of pooling on the railroad rates? Created rate wars and drove companies not in pools out of business.
What are rebates? Discounts often secretly given to the biggest customers.
Were rebates offered to farmers and other small shippers? Small railroad couldn't compete and small shippers faced higher prices.
What was the Homestead Act of 1862? It helped the development of the West by providing free land to settlers for at least 5 years.
What was life like for the Western farmers? Climate was dry, homes had leaky roofs, farming tools broke a lot, and grasshoppers ate everything.
What was the National Grange (1870)? Organized to promote the interests of farmers. Boost farm prices, lower Railroad, formed cooperatives, pooled $$ to buy wholesale, crop prices drop, farmers sank to deeper debt.
What was the Populist Party (1890s)? Many American farmers tried to resolve their economic problems by joining together.
What was the outcome of the Populist Party? Helped with falling price, High railroad rates, income tax, 8 hour work day and limits on immigration.
What is the definition of Capitalism/Free Market Economy/Free Enterprise System? Private individuals own and control business.
What is a Corporation? Business owned by investors.
What is the stock of a Corporation? Raises money for the business through the sale of stock.
What is the main advantage of a Corporation? It has the largest growth potential.
What is a Monopoly? It is total control over a certain type of industry.
What is the main criticism of a Monopoly? It eliminates competition and prices, Less innovation, and less variety.
Who had the monopoly over the steel industry? Andrew Carnegie
Who had the monopoly over the oil industry? John Rockefeller
What is Laissez Faire? When when gets less involved with the economy
What is the Sherman Anti-Trust Law (1890)? A law that made monopolies and trust illegal.
Which inventions improved communication? Transatlantic Cable, Telephone, Phonograph, Power Plant, Light Bulb, and Camera
What industry did refrigeration help? Helped the meat-packers
Why did refrigeration help the meat-packers? Helped to store food and transport across the country
Who invented the Phonograph, Power Plant and Light Bulb? Thomas Edison.
What was the purpose of the Phonograph, Power Plant and Light Bulb? It helped the music and electricity industries
Who invented the Lightweight Camera? George Eastman
What was the purpose of the Lightweight Camera? It helped make photographs easier
Who invented the airplane? Wright Brothers
What was the purpose of the airplane? It made transportation quicker and easier
Who invented the telephone? Alexander Graham Bell
What was the purpose of the telephone? It made communication easier - helped find out about supplies/prices
Who put the idea of the assembly line and the manufacturing of cars together ? Henry Ford
What was the purpose of the assembly line? It helped with the mass production - produced cars, faster and cheaper.
What is mass production? Making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaper
What is Specialization of Labor? Where each person performs a specific task.
What are the Advantages of an Assembly Line? Unskilled worker makes more money, workers don't need experience, and Products are cheaper.
What are the Disadvantages of an Assembly Line? Hard to attract workers, Less variety, Too much management involvement, No customization, Repetitive work, Long Hours, Easily replaced, and Final product not well made.
What is a sweatshop? Workers work 8 to 12 hour days for 6 days a week and earn about a dollar.
Who were hired as factory workers? Children
Why did factory workers hire children? They were cheaper workers
What is a Union? Groups that was organized by workers to demand better pay and better working conditions from their employers
What was the Knights of Labor? One of the first unions, organization of garment cutters, and became unpopular because of a wave of strikes
What were some tools used by Labor Unions? Collective Bargaining, strikes, and picketing
Who was the leader of the Knights of Labor? Terence Powderly
What union existed during 1869-1890's? Knights of Labor
What was the Haymarket Riot? When striking workers gathered in Chicago to protest the killing of four strikers the previous day. A bomb was thrown and killed a police officer.
What was the outcome of the Haymarket Riot? People began to associate labor movements with violence.
What year did the Haymarket Riot take place? 1886
What are two examples of unsuccessful strikes? Homestead Strike (1886) and Pullman Strike (1892)
What was the American Federation of Labor (AFL)? Union of skilled workers in various crafts
Who was the founder of AFL? Samuel Gompers
What year was the AFL founded? 1881
What was the purpose of the AFL? to increase wages, create short work hours, and improve working conditions.
What was the outcome of Triangle Fire? The International Ladies' Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) was created. It was created by women and was created because many unions would not admit women.
Created by: desilva13