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CNS Test 1

QuestionAnswer
Regions of the brainstem from inferior to superior Medulla, Pons, Midbrain
What separates the spinal cord from the medulla? foramen magnum
Which part of the medulla is closed and which part of the medulla is open? Inferior is closed and superior is open.
What structures are in the inferior portion of the medulla? fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, central canal, olive, pyramids
What structures are in the superior portion of the medulla? 4th ventricl, olives and pyramids
What structures are on the posterior side of the medulla? fasciulus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus
What structures are on the anterior side of the medulla? pyramids and olives
Pons is made up of what two pieces tegmentum/dorsal pons and basal pons
What structures are in the tegmentum or dorsal pons? cerebral aqueduct and some regions contains the 4th ventricle
Midbrain is made up of what? tectum and cerebral peduncle
The cerebral peduncle of the midbrain is made up of what? basal peduncle and tegmentum
What structures are in the tectum of the midbrain? colliculus and cerebral aquedeuct
Where is the red nucleus located? tegmentum of midbrain
where is the substantia nigria located? tegmentum of midbrain
Part of the spinal cord that contains processes and supporting cells but does not contain cell bodies. white matter
Area of white matter in the spinal cord funiculus
What are the 3 areas of white matter in the spinal cord? posterior, lateral and anterior funiculus
Group of white matter in which fibers that have the SAME origin, termination and function, give an example tract; corticospinal tract and spinothalamic tract
Tract with a ribbon shape, give an example. lemniscus; medial lemniscus
Group of fibers in the white matter that may have differing origins and different termination but have related functions? fasciculus
Where does the internal carotid artery arise from? common carotid artery at the level of the thyroid
What is the internal carotid artery route? Enters the cranial cavity through the carotid canal, penetrates the dura ventral to the optic nerve and starts branching
Which artery enters the orbit through the optic foramen? What does this artery give rise to? opthalmic artery; central artery of the retina
What does the opthalmic artery supply? retina and cranial dura
Interruption in blood flow of the opthalmic artery can cause what? loss of vision on ipsilateral side
Where does the anterior choridal artery arise from? near the optic chiasm
Route of the anterior cerebral artery? Branch of the ICA at the level of the optic chiasm than travles through the interhemispheric fissure
Anterior cerebral artery supplies what? Medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere including frontal and parietal lobes. Also the postcentral and precentral gyrus
Number 1 problem of the CNS blood supply to the CNS = stroke
Vertebral artery supplies what? medulla
Basilar artery supplies what? pons
Posterior cerebral artery supplies what? posterior cerebral cortex and midbrain
Anterior choroidal artery supplies what? choroid plexus of lat. ventricle, optic tract, parts of internal capsule, lateral thalamus and hippocampus and globus pallidus
Hippocampus is for what? limbic such as memory and personality
Globus pallidus is for what? Motor
Which branch of the ICA is prone to occlusion and why? anterior chroidal artery; long course and small diameter (sensitive to ischemia)
Route of the anterior cerebral artery medial side of optic tract and over corpus callosum
Route of middle cerebral artery and what does it supply? through lateral fissure; majority of lateral side
Occulsion of the left side can cause what? language problems
Posterior cerebral artery supplies what? occipital lobe, cerebrum and superior posterio midbrain
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies what for what? middle cerebellar peduncle, pons for CN 5,6,7 and cerebellum for motor and balance
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies what? medulla and cerebellum
Meningeal artery supplies what? posterior cranial fossa and meninges
Posterior spinal aa's supply what? spinal cord and medulla
Anterior spinal aa's supply what? whole length of spinal cord and medulla
Circle of Willis is complete only in what percent of people? 20%
Very common site of conegenital aneurysm and why? Circle of Willis; walls of vessels incorrectly formed 75% rupture
Superior posterior midbrain includes what and for what? What artery supplies it? sup. colliculus, occlumotor nerve; vision; posterior cerebral artery
Inferior posterior midbrain includes what and for what? What artery supplies it? inf. colliculus, CN 4; hearing; superior cerebral artery
4 regions of the diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus
General function of the epithalamus limbic system; behavior, personality, memory, influence the reproductive system
2 parts of the epithalamus pineal gland and habenula
Does the pineal gland secrete hormones? If yes, what are they. Yes, melatonin(night) and norepinephrin, serotonin(day)
Other functions of the pineal gland involved in circadian rythem and possibly in human reproduction
Explain the habeunula Nucleus that has a L & R structure, possibly relay by which the limbic system did and hypothalamus can influence activity
Where is the subthalamus? continuous with midbrain below tegmentum
General function of the subthalamus continuous motor
Nuclei of the subthalamus subthalamic, red nucleus, substantia nigra
Which two nuclei of the subthalamus are also in the tegmentum of the midbrain? red nucleus and substantia nigra
General function of the hypothalamus endocrine fxn, receives every kind of sensory info., influence/use autonomics and responsible for homeostasis
Nuclei of the hypothalamus and what do they control? supraoptic: ADH, paraventricular: oxytocin, mamillary: limbic system
General function of the thalamus send info to cerebral cortex, everything but smell
Nuclei of the thalamus anterior nucleus, midline, doromedial, intralaminar, lateral dorsal, lateral posterior, pulvinar, ventral anterior, ventral lateral, ventral posterior, lateral geniculate, medial geniculate, reticular, posterior complex
Anterior Nucleus of the thalamus do what? memory functions and regulations of emoitional behavior
Midline nucleus of the thalamus do what? nonspecific
Dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus do what? mediation of affective processes and emotional behavior
Intralaminar nucleus of the thalamus do what? nonspecific
Ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus does what? motor functions
Ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus does what? motor functions
Ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus does what? transmission of somato sensory information from the body and head to different regions of the postcentral gyrus
Lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus does what? visual cortex from both retinas
Medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus does what? hearing
Reticular nucleus of the thalamus does what? never use it, intrathalamic communication within the thalamus
Posterior complex nucleus of the thalamus does what? nonspecfic
3 nuclei of the thalamus in functional groups are what specific, non-specific, association thalamic
Created by: 1277880004