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CSET PART I MULTIPLE

MULTIPLE SUBJECT CSET PART I LANGUAGE ARTS

QuestionAnswer
Morphology The study of word structure
Phonological awareness The understanding that words are composed of sounds called phonemes
Pragmatics The study of the social, physical and cultural context of language use
Phonology The study of the way sounds function in language
Zone of proximal development (ZPD) The difference between a child's campacity to solve a problem on his own and his ability to solve the problem with assistance
Rhetoric the art of the effective and persuasive use of language
Interior Monologe reveals a character's thoughts and feelings
Language acquisition device (LAD) The innate structural predispotion of the human brain to make sense of language
Metacognition Learning how to learn
Meter The rhythm of a poem (regular or irregular)
Natural Language Acquisition A type of learning modeled on the way young children absorb a native tongue
Phonemes Sound that signals differences in meaning (ex. Cat and Hat)
Morphemes The sound sequences that convey meaning
Symbol A use of figurative language in which a words or phrase signifies or stands for something else in addition to itself.
Semantics The study of the ways in which sounds, words, sentences etc ar used to convey meaning in language "the study of meaining in a language"
Syntax The grammatical structure of sentences
Parallelism A structural device in which words,phrases or ideas are repeated once or several times
Archetypes Models and patterns instantly recognizable for their universal characteristics
Allegory An extended metaphor, with one surface maining and another lunderlying meaning
Universal Grammar The general properties that underlie and govern the developent of all human languages
Satire Irony (expose faults in a jokingly way of a group or system)
Parody a humorous form that imitates the style and conventions of seriouse work (ex. masterpiece-monsterpiece)
FAULTY LOGIC AD HOMINEM, FALSE CAUSALITY, RED HERRING, OVERGENERALIZATION, BADWAGON, BEGGING THE QUESTION
AD HOMINEM ATTACK A PERSON W/NO EVIDENCE
FALSE CAUSALITELITY TREATING TWO OR MORE COINCIDENTAL CONDITIONS AS THOUGHT ONE CAUSES THE OTHER
RED HERRING USING IRRELEVANT INFO TO DISTRACT ATTENTION FROM THE ARGUMENT
OVERGENERALIZATION STEREOTYPING
BANDWAGON COUNTS ON BEING CONVINCED BY A POSITION'S POPULARITY (EVERYONE ELSE IS DOING IT)
BEGGING THE QUESTION INCLUDING AN ASSUMPTION WITHIN THE ARGUMENT AS THOUGH THE ASSUMPTION HAD ALREADY BEEN PROVEN
ALLITERATION REPETITION OF THE SAME SOUND
BIRTH-1YR COOING THEN BABBLING
1-2YRS ONE-WORD UTTERANCES(HOLOPHRASTIC SPEECH)
18-30 MONTHS TELEGRAPHY SPEECH form of communication consisting of simple two-word, noun-verb sentences that adhere to the grammatical standards of the culture's language. For example, an English-speaking child would say "Give cupcake" to express that they would like
2-5 YRS EMERGENT SPEECH/GRAMMAR EXPLOSION
5-7 YRS INTERMEDIATE LANGUAGE FLUENCY
7YRS TO ADULTHOOD INCREASING FLUENCY
GERUND ING form of a verb used as a noun
Relative Clause has a main noun and an explanatory phrase that are combined in a grammatical way, and it has a base structure.
Phonological awareness skill that is easierst for young studnet to acquire Indentifying the initial sound in a word
The languages of the world are similar to ea. other in all of the following The basic principle of phrase structure, The fact that phonemes and morphemes of a language are arbitratry, A logical syntax
Infinitive to: therefore, do and to do, be and to be, and so on are infinitives
Adverbial is a word or group of words that tells us something about the sentence or the verb
Participle example present partiple, past partiple
prewriting strategies OUTLINING, WEBBING, NOTE-TAKING
Noam Chomsk's theory of Universl Grammar there is an assumption that all languages have a common structural basis. This set of rules is known as universal grammar.
Spelling stages Pre-communicative, semi phonetic, phonetic, transitional
Pre-commuicative Child understand that letters represent sound. May know only a few letters of the alphabet. Tend to favor capital letters
Semi phonetic stage child understand letter sound correspondence as a principle EXAMPLE U INSTEAD OF YOU
Phonetic stage represent speech sound w/letters or group of letters in a logical way EXAMPLE WRITES KOM INTEAD OF COME
Transitional Stage use of visual memory EXAMPLE WRITES EGUL INSTEAD OF EAGEL
Formal Assessment Done after a period of learning to evaluate how well the learning has taken place SUMMATIVE
Informal Assessment on going assessments provide immediate useful into FORMATIVE
Conjunctions a word that joins words or group of words (but, and, or)
Interjections words/phrases that express strong emotion (stop!, help!)
Helping Verb do, does, did, have has, had
prepositions a word which shows the relation of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence (upon, under, for, except, about, concerning, during)
APPOSITIVES CLAUSE CLAUSE-WORDS PHRASES OR CLAUSES THAT MEANS THE SAME THING AS OR FURTHER EXPLAINS ANOTHER NOUN OR PRONOUN
COMPLEX SENTENCE CONSIST OF AN INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAUSE
TRANSITIONAL WORDS CONNECT AND IDENTIFY RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAUSE
NON-RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE ARE DEPENDENT CLAUSE THAT BEING WITH RELATIVE PRONOUNS (WHO, WHOM, WHICH, WHICHEVER, WHOEVER, WHOMEVER) AND ARE SURROUNDED BY COMMAS.
ADJECTIVE CLAUSE IS A DEPENDENT CLAUSE
ADVERB CLAUSE Is A DEPENDENT CLAUSE
RESTRICTIVE CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE THAT BEGING W/RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND ARE NOT SURROUNDED BY COMMAS.
A DEPENDENT CLAUSE NORMALLY STARTS WITH A SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION.
ERROS IN DICTION REFERS TO IMPROPER WORD USAGE
OMNISCIENT POINT OF VIEW IS A WAY OF TELLING A STORY THAT ALLOWS THE AUTHOR TO ENTER THE MINDSD OF HIS/HER CHARACTERS.
BALLAD NARRATIVE POEM THAT TELLS A STORY AND WAS WRITTEN TO BE SUNG.
DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE SPEAKS TO A SECOND PERSON WHO DOES NOT REPLY
PROSE Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech.
SONNET a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure
analyzing prose Genre, Subject, structure, style, narrator,
DRAMATIC SITUATION WHO IS SPEAKING, WHO ARE THE SPEAKERS, IT IS A MALE, FEMALE, WHERE IS HE OR SHE, WHEN DOES THE POEM TAKES PLACE. WHAT ARE THE CIRCUMSTANCES?
POEM STRUCTURE ALLITERATIONS, ONEMONOPIA
THEME OF POEM DEFINE WHAT THE POEM SAYS AND WHY
IMAGES AND FIGURE OF SPEECH WHAT ARE THE SIMILE AND METAHOR OF THE POEM. PATTERN IN IMAGES
LITERARY DEVICES METAPHOR, SIMILE, PERSONIFICATION
PROSODY OF POEM RHYME, METER, SOUND EFFECTS
GENRE: KIND OF WORK-FICTION, NONFICTION
NARRATOR WHO IS SPEAKING, WHERE, WHEN, WHY, TO WHOM.
SUBJECT PURPOSE OF PASSAGE. IS IT TO PRESENT AN ARGUMENT OR TO INTRUDUCE A CHARACTER. TO CAJOLE OR ENTERTAIN
STRUCTURE HOW ARE SENTENCES, PARAGRAPHS RELATED TO EA. OTHER & THE PASSAGE AS A WHOLE
STYLE DETERMINED BY DICTION, IMAGERY, FIGURATIVE OF SPEECH AND SYNTAX.
PERSONA A persona, in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor.
ALTER EGO SECOND PERSON OR A PERSONA WITHIN A PERSON
FREE VERSE term describing various styles of poetry that are written without using strict meter or rhyme
METERED POETRY the basic rhythmic structure of a verse.
Accommodation the cognitive process where existing schemata are modified or/and new schemata is restructured to fit the child’s environment.
Accretion Learning is the subconscious or subliminal, process by which individuals learn important things like language, prejudices, habits, social rules and behaviors. Accretion is a process where individuals are totally unaware that learning is taking place. Accretion acc
Acquisition tends to be more relevant to students and it appears to be the conscious choice of how students want to learn. This approach involves self-instruction, experimenting, inquiry, exploring, and general curiosity. Acquisition accounts for about 20% of what st
Affixes an attachment to the end or beginningof base or root words. A generic term that describes prefixes and suffixes word parts "fixed to" either the beginnings of words (prefixes) or the ending of words (suffixes). For example, the word disrespectfulhas two a
Alphabetic Principle the notion that letters making a word have corresponding sounds, thus letters and sounds can be placed together to build words
Assimilation the cognitive process where information from the environment is integrated into existing schematato use and apply recently learned knowledge into one's thought pattern in solving problems.
Authentic Assessment a technique to examine students’ collective abilities via real-world challenges that requires them to apply their relevant skills and knowledge.
Cognitive Coaching teaching students to use their own thinking processes to solve problems
Conventional Spelling standard spelling is the correct form for written documents.
Digraphs two letters that represent one speech sound, as EA in BREAD, CH in CHAT, or NG in SING.
Diphthongs two-vowel combinations where both vowels are heard, but not quite making their usual sounds because of the blending, i.e., oy in TOY.
Consonant alternations (e.g., soft-soften, magic-magician)
Echo Reading strategy where the teacher reads a line or passage with good expression, and calls on students to read it back. This is a good technique to use with Emergent Readers to help them build reading fluency.
Emergent Reader - he reader at the beginning stages of learning to read and developing an association of print with meaning. During this stage of reading development, children engage in reading play and retelling familiar stories from memory and using pictures to make pred
Formative Evaluation ongoing evaluation during an instructional sequence to allow midstream adaptation and improvement of the project.
Guided Reading is a strategy where experienced readers provide structure via modeling strategies in order to move beginning readerstowards independence.
Guided Writing classroom teacher supports student development with the writing process. Students are required to write sentences or passages while the teacher guides the process and instruction through conferences and minilessons.
Homographs words that are spelled alike but have different sounds and meanings (bow and arrow vs. bow of a ship) .
Invented Spelling technique used by beginning writers to spell words using whatever knowledge of sounds or visual patterns when formal spelling strategy is not yet learned.
Language Experience Approach (LEA) a method of teaching reading by using the reader's own dictated language. This approach allows the reader to read words common to their environment.
Onomatopoeia he terms used to describe words whose pronunciations suggest their meaning (e.g., meow, buzz, zoom).
Phonics eaching reading and spelling that stresses basic symbol-sound relationships and their application in decoding words in beginning instruction.
Phonogram a succession of letters representing the same phonological unit in different words, such as ed in red, bed, fed. or, IGHT in FLIGHT, MIGHT and TIGHT.
Reflective Teaching involves the ability to: research & explore, question & analyze, and make changes to both lessons and curriculum based on learning results experienced in the classroom.
Round-robin Reading an outdated reading strategy that attempts to teach students to read by having them follow other students in reading specific passages of text identified by the teacher. This technique is not recommended because it hampers reading fluency, its boring, and
Schemata- a data structure for representing the generic concepts stored in memory. There are three types of schemata’s, content, language, and textual.
Content Schemata includes systems of factual knowledge, values, and cultural conventions.
Language Schemata includes sentence structure, grammatical inflections, spelling, punctuation, vocabulary, and cohesive structures.
Textual Schemata ncludes the rhetorical structure of different modes of text, (i.e., recipes, fairy tales, research papers, and science textbooks).
Summative evaluation evaluation that comes at the conclusion of an educational program or instructional sequence.
Shared Reading . Students have access to books they could not read independently.
Guided Reading Teachers provide directions and scaffolding.
. Independent Reading Students develop responsibility and ownership.
Buddy Reading Students are encouraged to collaborate.
Reading Aloud to Students . Students have access to books they could not read independently.
Created by: yessiebravo