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USH chapter 29

US History - chapter 29 - Civil Rights

1896 Supreme Court decision regarding LA railroads Plessy v Ferguson
Summarize Plessy v Ferguson in 3 words "Separate but Equal"
What happened mid-20th century to begin to change racial attitudes WWII - whites fought alongside blacks
An NAACP lawyer that argued 32 supreme court cases, winning 29 Thurgood Marshall
What was Thurgood Marshall's highest position ? Supreme Court Justice
What was Thurgood Marshall's largest victory in front of the Supreme Court ? Brown v. BOE
What is Rosa Parks known for ? refusing to give up her seat on a bus
Where did Rosa Parks stage her protest (City, State) Montgomery, AL
What did blacks do in response to Rosa Parks incident ? started the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Who led the Montgomery Improvement Association to lead the bus boycott? Dr. MLK, Jr.
What organization did MLK,Jr. found ? Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Who made up the SCLC? more than 100 ministers and Civil Rights leaders
Organization of college students formed to protest segregation Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
What does SNCC stand for ? Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee
What kind of protests did SNCC organize (how did they protest ?) sit-ins
Where were the most famous sit-ins ? Lunch Counters
What did Brown v. BOE overturn ? Separate but Equal (Plessy)
Summarize Brown v. Board in 6 words _____ ______ ____ are ______ ______ Separate Educational Facilities are Inherently unequal
Who was chief supreme court justice during Civil Rights Era ? Earl Warren
Group formed by CORE to test Supreme Court decisions in Southern states Freedom Riders
What was necessary for the Freedom Riders to get to their destinations? Federal Marshals
Who was Attorney General during the Freedom Rider campaign? Robert Kennedy
Air Force veteran that was rejected from a southern university after he won a federal court case James Meredith
What southern university was James Meredith rejected from ? Ole Miss
Civil Rights bill the guaranteed equal access to all public accomodations Civil Rights act of 1964
Large march held in Aug, 1963 March on Washington
Famous Speech given at the March on Washington "I have a dream"
Campaign to register blacks to vote in Mississippi Freedom Summer
What summer was the Freedom Summer? 1964
Who led the Freedom Summer in Mississippi? Robert Moses
new political party organized by SNCC MFDP (Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party)
Famous voice of the MFDP Fannie Lou Hamer
Why did young people in SNCC and MFDP feel betrayed by civil rights leaders? The civil rights leaders made deals and compromises in order to maintain political support among whites
Law that eliminated literacy tests at the polls Voting Rights Act of 1965
Type of segregation that was a problem in the North de facto segregation
Segregation by law de jure segregation
Segregation when a law against segregation is in place de facto segregation
African American civil rights leader who believed that AA's should fight back when unlawfully attacked Malcolm X
Why is Malcolm X's name "X" he rejected his 'slave name' (Little)
What religious teachings did Malcolm X follow? Nation of Islam
Famous catch-phrase used by Malcolm X "Ballots or Bullets"
SNCC leader who was arrested for setting up a tent ion the grounds of an all-black high school Stokely Carmichael
Famous catch-phrase used by Stokely Carmichael Black Power
What did MLK, Jr. think of "Black Power" It shouldn't be used because it provokes violence and antagonizes whites
Political party which advocated African- Americans taking control of communities The Black Panthers
What year was MLK, Jr. assassinated...where, and by who? 1968, by James Earl Ray in Memphis, TN
Commission set up by LBJ to study Urban violence the Kerner Commission
Cause of urban violence, per Kerner Commission report White Racism
Law that banned discrimination in housing Civil Rights Act of 1968
Name two migrations of people before and during the civil rights era After WWII, Blacks moved north after WWII, and whites moved out of cities to suburbs ("White Flight")
Where in the country were most of the race riots ? Major cities; LA, Detroit, New York
What did MLK blame for taking money away from the Great Society? Vietnam war
Name 4 important leaders that were assassinated in the 1960s JFK, MLK,Jr, Robert Kennedy, Malcolm X
First Civil Rights Act that was declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court Civil Rights Act of 1875 (Supreme Court ruled in 1883)
Nickname for laws passed because of Plessy Jim Crow Laws
Laws that restricted social contact, black facilities often inferior Jim Crow Laws
What was the effect (race-wise) of WWII (during war) demands for labor helped equalize urban areas
Organization formed in 1909 that trained lawyers and tested legal segregation NAACP
Decision that state law school must admit blacks Sweatt v. Painter
Brown v. Board - Board of what city, state? Topeka, KS
What did the NAACP decide to focus on ? Education
what was the unintended consequence of Brown v. Board ? KKK reappeared, white citizens councils sprouted
What happened in Little Rock in 1957 ? Gov. Faubus order national guard to turn away 9 students
Girl that walked to school alone in Little Rock Elizabeth Eckford
Reaction of Pres Eisenhower to Little Rock crisis Sent 1000 paratroopers
How long did Montgomery Bus Boycott last ? Was it violent or nonviolent? 381 days, nonviolent
How did the Montgomery Bus Boycott end ? Federal court order
who were some nonviolent resistance leaders in history ? Jesus, Thoreau, A. Philip Randolph, Gandhi
Who organized the March on Washington? A. Philip Randolph
Where did the SNCC organize ? Shaw University, Raleigh, NC
Who helped organize the SNCC Ella Baker
What famous event was organized by CORE in 1942 ? first sit-in (Chicago)
What famous sit-in happened in NC (where were students from ?) Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro. Students from NC A&T
What happened to Woolworths as a result of how they handled the sit-in in Greensboro? Woolworths up north were picketed
What is a "Soul Force" ? Another name for nonviolent protest used in civil rights era
What was result of first Freedom Ride? James Peck was beaten and a bus was firebombed
What happened in Birmingham to the Freedom Ride? Police Chief (Bull Conner) stopped them and his men beat the riders and took them to TN
Who convinced the bus company to make the driver of the bus continue the trip ? Attorney General RFK
Were the Freedom Riders safe after RFK assured them they would be protected ? No, they were attacked again. RFK then sent Federal Marshals
What city in AL had a bad reputation for racial violence (18 bombings 1957-63) ? Birmingham
What famous letter was written by MLK from AL ? When ? "Letter from Birmingham Jail", in April 1963
After "Letter from Birmingham Jail" was published, what happened ? 1000 children marched; Bull Conner arrested 1959 of them. Next day fire hoses & attack dogs and clubs were used on the protesters (on national TV)
Who was the Governor of Alabama ? George Wallace
George Wallace's famous saying "Segregation Now.. Segregation Tomorrow.. Segregation Forever"
In June 1963, JFK used federal troops to desegregate what university ? University of Alabama
The same night that JFK gave a famous speech demanding civil rights legislation, who was murdered in Jackson, MS ? Who was he? Medgar Evers; NAACP field secretary and WWII vet
Who murdered Medgar Evers ? Was he convicted (immediately) ? Byron de la Beckwith. yes, but only after two 'hung' juries (in 1994)
What happened two weeks after March on Washington at a church in Birmingham ? 4 little girls killed in a bombing
What percent of blacks did not vote before the "Freedom Summer" ? 90%
Who were Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James Chaney ? Freedom Summer recruiters that disappeared in June 1964
What were the violent results of Freedom Summer? 4 dead, 4 critically wounded, 80 beaten, dozens of churches bombed
Where did Fannie Lou Hamer give her famous speech? At the Democratic National Convention
Who worked out a compromise with the MFDP at the DNC ? LBJ
What did the MFDP receive as a result of the LBJ compromise ? 2 seats at convention and promise to ban discrimination at next convention in 1968
Was Fannie Lou Hamer and teh SNCC happy about the LBJ compromise? No.. this was the beginning of factions in the movement
Who was shot in Selma in 1965 (a protester) Jimmie Lee Jackson
what did MLK, Jr. do in response to killing of Jimmie Lee Jackson in Selma? organized a march from Selma to Montgomery
Which Civil Rights Act estabished a Federal Commission on civil rights and set up a civil rights division in the DOJ to enforce it ? 1957
Which civil rights act banned discrimination in public accomodations, gave the feds more power in school desegration, and established the EEOC ? 1964
What Act eliminated voter literacy tests and enabled federal examiners to register voters? Voting Rights Act of 1965
Which civil rights act prohibited discrimination in sale and rental of housing ? 1968
Where in NYC were riots in 1964 ? Harlem
Where was the major riot in California ? (city & neighborhood) LA - Watts neighborhood
What year had the most urban violence (more than 100 cities) 1967
Urban Violence - what was the cause besides political and oppression ? Economic
what was the movement called where blacks to control their own communities, business, & culture ? "Black Pride"
Did Malcolm X agree with ending segregation? No, he was for "separatism"
Where did Malcolm X go in 1964 (which changed some of his attitudes) Mecca
When was Malcolm X assassinated ? 1965
Who did Stokely Carmichael want SNCC to stop recruiting ? Whites
Group started by Huey Newton & Bobby Seale, who urged blacks to control their own communities? Black Panthers
What year was the big "turning point" in civil rights? 1968
Who assassinated RFK ("Bobby") ? when ? Sirhan Sirhan (1968)
By 1970, what percentage of blacks could vote? 66%
What was the increase in number of blacks in elected office from 1965 to 1992> 300 to 7,000
Did the schools become more and more integrated from the mid 60's to the '90's ? No.. due to "White Flight" 75% of blacks in the North and 50% in the south attended predominantly black schools
What programs did the government start in the 1960's to try to make up for past discrimination? Affirmative Action programs
What challenge was faced in the 1970's to Affirmative Action? "Reverse Discrimination"
What was the reaction to MLK, Jr. assassination? 125 cities exploded in flames due to riots
Created by: JoeBounda