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AP History Chapter 1

Canadian Shield first part of the North American land-mass to emerge above sea level
Incas highly advanced South American civilization that occupies present day Peru until it was conquered by the Spanish forces under Francisco Pizarro in 1532.The Incas developed sophisticated agricultural techniques such as terrace farming in order to substian
Aztecs The Azetcs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
nation-states sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent
Cahokia 1100AD Mississippian settlement near present-day East St. Louis, home to as many as 25,000 natives
three-sister farming agricultural system employed by North America Indians as early as 1100 AD; maize, beans, and squash were grown together to maximize yields
middlemen in trading systems, those dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. After the eleventh century, European exploration was driven in large part by a desire to acquire alluring Asian goods wit
caravel small regular vessel with a high deck and three triangular sails. Caravel could sail more closely into the wind, allow European sailors to explore the Western shores of Africa, previously made inaccessible due to prevailing winds on the homeward journey
plantations large scale agriculture enterprise growing commercial crops and usually employing coerced or slave labor. European settlers established plantations in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, and the American South
Colombian exchange the transfer of goods, crops, and diseases between the old and new worlds after 1492
Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
Conquistadors Spanish explorers that invaded Central and South America for it's riches during the 1500's. In doing so they conquered the Incas, Aztecs, and other Native Americans of the area. Eventually they intermarried these tribes.
Capitalism sixteenth century Spaniards who fanned out across the Americans, from Colorado to Argentina eventually conquering Aztecs and Incan empires
Encomienda Spanish governments policy to command, or give, Indians to certain colonist in return for the promise to Christianize them, part of a boarder Spanish effort to subdue Indian tribes in the West Indies and on the North American mainland
Noche Triste sad night when the Aztecs were attacked by Hernan Cortes and his forces . He laid siege to the city participating the fall of the Aztec rule and ensuring 3 Spanish generations of rule
Mestizos The Mestizos were the race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Indians in Mexico.
Battle of Acoma 1599 Fought between Spaniards under Don Juan de Onate and the Pueblo Indians in present day New Mexico. Spaniards brutally crushed the pueblos and established territory as new mexico in 1609
Popes Rebellion Pueblo Indian rebellion that drove Spaniard settlers from new mexico
Black legend The idea developed during North American colonial times that the Spanish utterly destroyed the Indians through slavery and disease while the English did not. It is a false assertion that the Spanish were more evil towards the Native Americans than the Eng
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile The wedded king and queen of Spain, their marriage united the previously non-existing country.
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages t
Francisco Coronado A Spanish soldier and commander; in 1540, he led an expedition north from Mexico into Arizona; he was searching for the legendary Seven Cities of Gold, but only found Adobe pueblos.
Francisco Pizarro New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Bartolomé de Las Casas A Spanish missionary who was appalled by the method of encomienda, calling it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.”
Hernan Cortes He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.
Malinche (Dona Marina) A female Indian slave who knew Mayan and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztec.
Montezuma Aztec chieftan; encountered Cortes and the Spanish and saw that they rode horses; Montezuma assumed that the Soanush were gods. He welcomed them hospitably, but the explorers soon turned on the natives and ruled them for three centuries.
Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) he explored the northeastern coast of north america in 1497-98
Robert de LaSalle sent by French, he went on an expedition down the Mississippi in 1680's
Father Junipero Serra the Spanish missionary who founded 21 missions in California in the 1769 he founded Mission San Diego the first Chain
Created by: rosie12198