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Vocab Chapter one

Introduction to Human Geography

QuestionAnswer
Human Geography One of the two branches of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities and landscapes
Globalization The expansion of economic, political and cultural processes that have become global in their scale and impact. These processes transcend state boundaries and vary in outcome across places and scales.
Physical geography One of the two major branches of geography, the spatial analysis of the structure processes and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants animals and topography.
Spatial Pertaining to space on the Earth's surface and is used as a synonym for geographic .
Spatial Distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
Pattern The design of a spatial distribution, that is scatterred or concentrated etc.
Medical Geography The study of health and disease within a geographic context, and from a geographic prospective. Among other things This branch of geography looks at sources and diffusion patterns of diseases.
Pandemic An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide
Epidemic Regional outbreak of a disease
Spatial perspective Observing variations of geographic phenomena across space
Five Themes of Geography Location, Human Environment, region, place, and movement
Location The first theme of the five themes of geography, it is the geographic situation of people and things.
Location Theory A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity, and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. the Agricultural location theory of Von Thunen is a prime example.
Human-environment The second theme of Geography it concerns itself with reciprocal relationships between humans and environment
Region The third theme of geography it is an area on the Earth's surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity (sameness) of some phenomenon
Place The fourth theme of geography. This reflects a perception of uniqueness of a location.
Sense of place State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that placeor by labeling a place with a certain character.
Perception of place Belief or "understanding" about a place developing through books, movies, stories or pictures.
Movement the Fifth Theme of Geography. The mobility of people goods and ideas across the surface of the planet
Spatial interaction The interaction of various factors of geography across space. For example Distance decay analyzes space by saying the greater distance one gets away from a stimulous the weaker it becomes.
Distance The mesurement of the physical space between places
Accessibility the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations. It varies from place to place andit can be measured
Connectivity the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations within a network of places
Landscape The overall appearance of an area. This is a combination of human and natural induced phenomena
Cultural landscape The visible imprint of Human activity on places. The layers of buildings, forms and artifacts sequently imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various Human occupants
Sequent occupance the idea that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Cartography The art and science of making maps, including dat compilation, layout and design. It is also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns
Reference maps Maps that show absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame reference, typically latitude and longitude
Thematic maps Maps that tell storie, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of geographic phenomena
Absolute location The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minuts and seconds of latitude 0 to 90 degrees north or south and longitude 0 to 180 degrees east or west of the prime meridian (0) passing through Greenwich, Eng
Global Positioning System (GPS) A satellite based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Reference maps Maps that show absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame reference, typically latitude and longitude
Thematic maps Maps that tell storie, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of geographic phenomena
Absolute location The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude 0 to 90 degrees north or south and longitude 0 to 180 degrees east or west of the prime meridian (0) passing through Greenwich, En
Global Positioning System (GPS) A satellite based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
Relative location The regional position or situation of a place in relation to other places.
Mental map Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by an individuals perception, impression and knowledge of that space
Activity space The space within which daily activity occurs
Remote sensing Collection of data using satellites
Geographic Information System (GIS) A collection of computer hardware and software which allows us to compile very specific data about the Earth
Rescale Involvement of players at other scales to generat support for an initiative or position.
Formal region A type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena
Functional region A region defined by a particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
Perceptual region A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity. For example the US South.
Culture The sum total of the knowledge, attitudes and habitual behavioral patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society.
Culture trait A single element of normal practice in a culture.
Culture complex A related set of cultural traits such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating materials
Cultural Hearth Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origen of a major culture
Independent invention The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other
Cultural diffusion The expansion and adoption of a cultural element from its place of origin to a wider area
Time distance decay The effects of distance and time on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less the interaction.
Cultural Barrier Prevailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadopable in a particular culture
Expansion Diffusion The spread of an innovation or idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination
Contagious diffussion the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person-- analogous to the communication of a contagious illness.
Hierarchical diffusion a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance of less
Stimulous diffusion A form of diffusion iin which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion processes in which items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate old areas and relocate in new areas. The most common form of this type of diffusion involves the spread of innovations by a migrating po
Environmental determinism The view that environment is the governing factor in influencing the various factors of human life. Long a justification for racists to sell their case about the superiority of europeans over people from other less habitable place in the world
Possibilism States that Human decisions can control the environment although this theory states that extreme environmental conditions limit human possibilities
Cultural ecology The interaction between various cultures and the natural environment
Political Ecology How the environment is affected by the political and socioeconomic contexts in which it exists
Created by: jmmassa