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J Johnson Government

Chapter 1, Lesson 1, Topics 1-3

Democracy A form of government, a system of selecting policymakers, and a way of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences.
Dictatorship A form of government in which one person controls all aspects of governing, the general population has little or no political participation, and their rights are restricted.
Direct Democracy System or process that depends on the voice of the people (and not representatives), usually through referendums or initiatives, to make public policy decisions.
Elite and Class Theory A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
Hyper-pluralism A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.
Indirect Democracy A system, also called "representative democracy," in which the people elect representatives to run the government and express their sentiments.
Linkage Institutions The channels or access points through which issues and people’s policy preferences get on the government’s policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political parties, and interest groups are the three main linkage institutions.
Monarchy Form of government in which one person has control, claiming power comes from “divine rights” passed from one generation of the royal class to the next.
Oligarchy Form of government, sometimes called "dictatorship of the party," in which power is shared among an exclusive group, and people have few rights and limited participation in government.
Pluralist Theory A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
Policy Agenda According to John Kingdon, “the list of subjects or problems to which government officials, and people outside of government closely associated with those officials, are paying some serious attention at any given time.”
Policymaking Institution The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S. Constitution established three policymaking institutions: the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political
PolicyMaking System The process by which political problems are communicated by the voters and acted upon by government policymakers. The policymaking system begins with people’s needs and expectations for governmental action. When people confront government officials with p
Political Socialization According to Richard Dawson, “the process through which an individual acquires his [or her] particular political orientations--his [or her] knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his [or her] political world.”
Public Policy A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken with regard to some problem.
Representative Monarchy A form of government in which the monarch is more of a figurehead than a dictator, and the people have political and civil rights and can participate in parliamentary government.
Republic A form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, people in a republic select re
Traditional Democratic Theory A theory about how a democratic government makes its decisions. According to Robert Dahl, its cornerstones are equality in voting, effective participation, enlightened understanding, final control over the agenda, and inclusion.
Created by: jjohn255
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