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Histology Outline 1

Histology Class Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Histology Study of tissues (and cells). It is a microscopic study
Tissues A group of cell performing similar functions.
Extracellular matrix Molecules which combine to form larger structures. Made of fibers.
How slides are made for light microscopy Step 1 Tissue sampling - post mortum dissections, biopsy samples, surgical excisions.
How slides are made for light microscopy Step 2 Fixation - Immediately after tissue sampling. It prevents enzymatic degradation of tissues by autolysis killing any pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It also preserves cellular structure.
How slides are made for light microscopy Step 3 Embedding & sectioning -Dehydration before imbedding.
How slides are made for light microscopy Step 4 Staining - Dyes are acidic or basic.
Acidic dye examples Eosin, Orange G, Acid fuchsin
Acidic dyes are ________ charged and they stain a _____ color because it binds to _______ which are ______ Net Negatively. Orange G*. Cations. Amino groups of proteins
Basic dyes examples Hematoxylin
Basic dyes are ________ charged and they stain a _____ color because it binds to _______ which are ______ Net positively. Toludine blue*. Anions. Phosphate groups, nucleic acids, sulfate groups, glycosaminoglycans, and carboxyl groups of proteins.
The glycosaminoglycans are part of the ______ Extracellular matrix
Acidic dyes bind to cationic groups in a reaction called ______ eosinophilia
Basic dyes bind to anionic groups in a reaction called ______ Basophilia
Primary stain H&E acidic and basic
Stain Cartilage green/blue color
Mallory stain
Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) Stain polyssacharides
Silver stain Stains particular fibers blue-purple-black color
oil red O, Osmic acid and Sudan black Oils and lipids
Light microscope condenser focuses light
Light microscope objective lenses magnify objects
Light microscope eyepiece 10x magnitication
Resolution ability to distinguish between two objects.
Phase contrast microscopes also use light, but vies unstained specimens Light passes through different structures and different speeds- some structures are darker than others
Differential interference microscopes light microscopes in 3D
Other types of light microscopes Polarizing, confocal, fluorescence
Polarizing microscopes Light microscopes with polarized filter and a second filter- layer upon layer
Confocal focuses light even more in small areas
Fluorescence Uses fluorescent dies which are kidney dyes
Electron microscopy-TEM & SEM advantage increased resolution to about 0.2-0.5 nanometers
EM 5000x-120000x magnification
Electron dense areas in EM darker
Electron lucent areas in EM lighter
Principle of EM electromagnetic fields can deflect a beam of electrons, after passing through a specimen.
Images are always _______ in EM Black and white
SEM Has no penetration. Scans specimen in 3D magnifies 10000x That way you can see cells and organs.
Freeze fracture Tissue is rapidly frozen the hit with an object such as a razor blade and then viewed. This is used to see the internal structures
Structures are sectioned in planes Longitudinal Transverse/cross section Oblique
Longitudinal Parallel to longest section
Transverse/cross section perpendicular to longitudinal
Oblique Between long and cross section
Serial section Serves to ascertain true structures and figure out what the specimen looks like
Tangential or grazing section ....
Is what appears as a single layer of cells, truly just one layer? Probably not
Is an element of human error involved in making slides? Of course
Faulty techniques artifacts or flaws
Degeneration of tissues distorted images - not fixed right after sampled
Shrinkage of tissues Empty spaces - could appear because of the heat of wax, fixative, or/and alcohol
Thick staining precipitate of staining granules
Mishandled tissues Folds or wrinkles
Two most commonly used chemicals Gluteraldehyde and 4% Formaldehyde (or formalin = 17% aqueous solution of formaldehyde)
link amino groups of proteins and since proteins are important it will link 3D structure of cell/tissue and they will be maintained. ....
Created by: natalia797171