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BioMed I First Test

Biomed fo Dental Hygiene

QuestionAnswer
Protons are... positively charged located in the nucleus
Neutrons are... uncharged located in the nucleus
electrons are... negatively charged orbit the nucleus in shells, each shell contains 2,8 or 18 electrons when filled
elements in the periodic table are arranged according to... shell filling order
atomic number equals... number of protons an element is defined by its atomic number
atomic mass equals... number of protons plus number of neutrons
valence electrons are... electrons in the outer shell these are available for chemical reactions
electronegativity measures... atoms affinity for electrons
elements with few electrons find it easier to give up electrons to get a full outer shell
elements with almost full shells find it easier to... get more to fill up
electronegativity does what on the periodic table increases to the right on the periodic table
what is the most electronegative element? fluorine
what is the octet rule? atoms want their outer electron shells filled to 8
Ionic bonds are when atoms give up or acquire an electron to fill a shell
covalent bonds are when atoms share electrons
hydrogen bonds are not really a chemical bond but a very strong charge interaction between electrons on one molecule with a proton on another
What are examples of hydrogen bonding? water as a solvent electrolytes
electrons in a covalent bond spend more time orbiting... the more electronegative nucleus
synthesis A+B--> AB
Decomposition AB-->A+B
Transfer/Exchange AB+CD-->AC+BD
oxidation-reduction (redox) A(-)+B-->A+B(-)
exergonic reactions electrons move to a lower energy state and the energy is release spontaneous give off energy in the process of happening
endergonic reactions electrons move to a higher energy state not spontaneous, must be coupled to an exergonic reaction reactions that take up energy in the process of happening
coupling reactions using the energy of an exergonic reactions to drive an endergonic one
ATP has a high energy phosphate bond that is used to drive what reactions endergonic
Activation Energy: the energy input required to get a reaction started
What is reversible? highly exergonic reaction reactions and products are close in energy low negative delta G
What is irreversible high negative delta G
What happens in redox reactions? custody of an election is physically transferred to a different atom along with its energy
the less electron density associated with a carbon atom... the more oxidized it is
Factors increasing oxidation state of a carbon include number of electrons shared with other atoms (how many bonds) electronegativity of the atoms sharing the bond (polarity)
oxidation of glucose generates ATP
acid is the... proton donor
Base is the... proton acceptor
strong acids... dissociate completely in water (reaction goes to completion)
Weak acids... dissociate part way (reaction is in equilibrium)
Isotopes atoms of an element are differentiated by their number of neutrons different atomic masses
mole is.. the mass of a compound in grams that is equal to its formula weight
the molecule left after the proton is lost is called a cognate base
concentration is measured in moles/liter=molarity
pH scale is concentration of H+ in a solution negative exponent turns logarithmic scale into linear measure of acidity
buffers are solutions of weak acid base pairs that act to maintain pH near their equilibrium pH point against the addition of other acids and bases
ions in a solution is called electrolytes
all energy in an atom available for reaction is associated with... the electrons
exergonic reaction electrons move to a lower energy state
endergonic reaction electrons move to a higher energy state
catalyst... lower the activation barrier to start reaction but does not change the energy yield
oxidation states ethanol ethanol-->acetaldehyde-->acetic acid
oxidation states of the functional groups of carbon alkane-->alcohol-->aldehyde (ketone)--> ester-->carboxylic acid
when the pH is low, the hydrogen concentration is... higher
what are numbered as one in carbohydrates? ketoses or aldoses with the carbonyl carbon
what is the general formula for carbohydrates? CnH2nOn
what are the functions of carbohydrates? main energy source for the body provides carbons for building core of the nucleic acids cell-cell interaction
what are the simplest form of sugar taken in the diet monosaccharides
what must happen to all dietary sugars in order for them to enter metabolism? be reduced
what are some examples of monosaccharides glucose, galactose, fructose
glycosidic bond does what joins carbon rings of two sugar monomers through oxygen
why is the shape of disaccharides important? recognition by the enzymes the break down these bonds for digestion
sucrose is made up of what glucose+ fructose alpha 1,2 bond
lactose is made up of what galactose+ glucose beta 1,4 bond
maltose is made up of what 2 glucose alpha 1,4 bond
polysaccharides are glucose joined by glycosidic bonds linkage determines superstructure of the polymer
alpha linkage tend to favor what structure coiled
beta linkage tend to form what structure fibrils
branching determines what in polysaccharides bushiness and thus hydration accessibility for enzymes
what are the functions of polysaccharides energy storage (glycogen, starch, dextran) structural rigidity (cellulose)
glycogen is alpha 1,4 bonds primary storage of glucose for animals in liver and muscle
starch has two forms amylose and amylopectin
amylose is unbranched
amylopectin is branched energy storage for plants
dextran is glucose monomers in alpha 1,6 linkage made by bacteria and secreted to form plaque. When calcified, this becomes calculus
cellulose is unbranched glucose in beta 1,4 linkage plants for cell walls to give structural rigidity glycosidic bonds are un-digestible to humans (fiber)
general classes of lipids long chain fatty acids, steroids, eicosanoids
long chain fatty acids are triglycerides (energy storage) phospholipids (membranes)
steroids are cholesterol and hormones
general properties of lipids mostly C and C atoms with very few electronegative atoms not water soluble, hydrophobic
roles of lipids in body energy storage membrane structural components hormones
structure of fatty acids long hydrocarbons chains with a carboxylic acid group on the end
saturated is when all carbons in the chain (except carboxyl) are fully reduced saturated with hydrogens
unsaturated is fatty acid contain one or more double bonds
cis bond does what puts a kink in the molecule
trans double bond does what makes straighter molecule more like the unsaturated one
adding double bond to fatty acids... increases the melting point by disrupting the packing of the chains with kinks example: butter and lard (solid at room temp)
fatty acids with trans double bonds like trans fat... have a higher melting point
essential fatty acids are what fatty acids that your body needs but cannot make on its own such as omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid
triacylgycerols are composed of fatty acid chains connected to glycerol by ester linkages with their carboxyl groups
triglycerides are most concentrated form of energy storage in the body because more reduced bonds stored in adipose tissue
structure properties of cholesterol 4 ring structure with a hydroxyl on one end and a hydrocarbon tail hydrophobic but hydroxyl is the only polar bond in the molecule
what is a major lipid component of membrane phospholipids
phospholipids are like triacylglycerols except that... the third fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate linked to a charged group (most often choline)
amphipathic part of it is hydrophobic and part is hydrophilic
what makes phospholipids amphipathic? charged group
cholsterol is weakly amphipathic because the OH on the outward membrane
cholesterol also interrupts phospholipid packing and makes it.. more fluid
dehydration synthesis... produces water connects disaccharides
hydrolysis breaking with water
ester two carbons jointed by an oxygen
bond between two sugar monomers glycosidic bond
does cellulose have branching? no
body doesn't make what kind of fatty acids? cis fatty acids
fats can be packed in better than carbohydrates because they are not hydrated like carbohydrates are
ribose is present in RNA
deoxyribose is present in DNA
nucleic acid structure contains pentose sugar (RNA or DNA) Phosphate Base (Guanine, Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine (Uracil))
roles of nucleic acids storage and propagation of genetic information (DNA) Messanger of genetic information (RNA) Energy for Chemical reactions (ATP)
what drives endergonic reactions in the cells? hydrolysis of the terminal bond in ATP fatty acid synthesis for energy storage
which part of ATP contain highly reactive because of so much electron density in close proximity phosphorous and oxygen
what are the four bases that contain the genetic code G, A, T, or C
double helix contains sugar- phosphate backbone forms the helix bases point into the center and hydrogen bond with the facing bases on the opposite helix
differences between RNA from DNA Sugars have a hydroxyl at the 2' carbon instead of an H cannot form double helix less stable than DNA, intended to be carriers
what happens in transcription DNA unwinds and a polymerase enzyme makes a base paired copy of the sequence but using ribonucleotides
what happens in translation the RNA binds to the ribosome complex and an amino acid chain is constructed based on the sequence of the three base codons in the RNA
what are the roles of proteins structural proteins globular proteins
what are the structural proteins keratins (hair and skin) and collagens (connective tissue) cytoskeleton (actin, microtubules)
what determines the type of amino acid the side chain
what is the structure of amino acids central carbon, amino, carboxyl and side chain
peptide bond is formed when amine of one amino acid binds to the carboxyl of another ester with a nitrogen instead of an oxygen
what is primary structure the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain
what is secondary structure the folding of the chain into alpha helix, beta sheet, collagen triple helix
what is tertiary structure folding into the 3-D structure of the molecule
what is Quaternary structure packing of different polypeptide subunits together to make a finished product (subunits are not covalently linked)
what is an active site? pocket that the substrate fits into to undergo a chemical reaction
nucleoside is sugar+ base
nucleotide is sugar+ base+ phosphate Nucleoside+phosphate
reactants are also known as... substrates
DNA-->RNA is what transcription happens in nucleus
RNA--> protein is what translation happens in cytoplasm
thymine is used in... DNA
Uracil is used in... RNA
RNA can have structural roles such as transfer RNA
cytology is the study of cell structure
cell physiology is the study of cell function
the cell is divided into three main parts... plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus
cytosol is... fluid portion of the cytoplasm
cytoskeleton is... network of protein tubules and filaments
cytoplasm consists of cytosol, cytoplasm, nucleus
the plasma membrane is what Forms the cell’s flexible outer surface, separating the cell’s internal environment (everything inside the cell) from the external environment (everything outside the cell).
fluid mosaic model means membrane resembles a continually moving sea of fluid lipids containing a mosaic of proteins
what is the structure of the plasma membrane lipid bilayer and membrane proteins
lipid bilayer is... basic structural framework of the plasma membrane lipid molecules are amphipathic made up of phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids
what is the percentage of phospholipids? 75%
what is the percentage of cholesterol? 20%
what is the percentage of glycolipids? 5%
polar head in lipid bilayer is charged, hydrophilic faces outward to the watery substance
nonpolar tail in bilayer hydrophobic faces inward forming hydrophobic region of the bilayer
what constitutes membrane proteins? integral membrane proteins peripheral membrane proteins
phospholipids are lipids that contain phosphorus phosphate containing part is polar head two long fatty acid chains are nonpolar tails
cholesterol is found in both layers of bilayer stabilizes membrane and influences membrane fluidity
cholesterol contents (polar head and nonpolar tails) tiny OH group polar head stroid rings and hydrocarbon chain nonpolar tail
glycolipids are carbohydrate moiety attached to phospholipid heads found only in the membrane layer that faces extracellular fluid and causes bilayer asymmetry
glycolipids contents (polar head and nonpolar tail) carbohydrate moiety- polar head two fatty acid chains- non polar tail
integral proteins are extend into or across the entire lipid bilayer, Firmly embedded into the membrane bilayer and are amphipathic
transmembrane proteins are integral proteins that project on both sides of the membrane (cytosol and extracellular fluid) some integral proteins are glycoproteins
peripheral proteins are located on the inner (cytoplasmic) or outer (Extracellular surface of the membrane
glycocalyx is carbohydrate protions of glycolipids and glycoproteins forms an extensive sugary coat
glycocalyx functions cell recognition cell adhesion cell protection (from enzyme digestion)
ion channels are pores that allow specific ions to flow through to enter or exit the cell formed by integral proteins
carriers are transporters integral proteins that bind a specific substance, change their shape and move it across the membrane
receptors are integral proteins that recognize and binds to a specific type of molecule called a ligand
ligand is a specific molecule that binds to a receptor
enzymes are integral and peripheral proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions
linkers are integral and peripheral proteins that anchor proteins to one another in plasma membrane and anchor proteins to protein filaments
cell identity markers are membrane glycoprotein and glycolipids that allow a cell to recognize other cells of the same kind
lipids and proteins seldom do what flip flop from one half of the bilayer to the other
membrane fluidity depends on number of double bonds (kinks) in fatty acid tails of the lipids amount of cholesterol
double bonds do what to membrane fluidity? increase
what does cholesterol do to membrane fluidity? cholesterol stabilizes the membrane and influences fluidity decreased fluidity at normal body temperature increased fluidity at low body temperature
lipid bilayer is permeable to... nonpolar, uncharged molecules oxygen, carbon dioxide and steroids
lipid bilayer is slightly permeable to... small, uncharged polar molecules water and urea
lipid bilayer is impermeable to... ions and charged or polar molecules glucose
macromolecules are unable to pass through the plasma membrane except by... vesicular transport
what is a vesicle? a membranous sac formed by budding off from an existing membrane
endocytosis is... materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
what are the types of endocytosis receptor mediated endocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis
receptor mediated endocytosis is selective uptake of large molecules and particles requires the binding of a ligand to its specific receptor in the plasma membrane
phagocytosis ingestion of solid particles (worn out cells, whole bacteria or viruses) from the extracellular compartment cell eating another form of receptor mediated endocytosis
endocytosis is ingestion of fluid from the extracellular compartment cell drinking NO receptors involved
exocytosis is materials move out of a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane vesicle formed inside the cell containing materials to be released from the cell
trascytosis is materials are taken up via endocytosis on one side of the cell transported across the cell in a vesicle and then released via exocytosis on the opposite side of the cell
cytosol is composed of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and inorganic substances
microfilaments are most are composed of actin function in movement provide structural support form core of microvilli
intermediate filaments are several different proteins form them provide structural support anchor organelles "tonofilaments" of desmosomes
microtubules are long, unbranched hollow tubules grow out from an organizing center called centrosome in nondividing cells composed of protein tubulin
what are the functions of microtubules help determine cell shape intracellular transport of organelles migration of chromosomes during cell division by "spindle apparatus" form core of cilia and flagella
centrosome are located near the nucleus, consisting of a pair of centrioles and pericentriolar material serves as an organizing center for formation of mitotic spindle in cell division
centrioles are non membrane limited organelles a pair of centrioles arranged at right angles 9+0 arrangement of microtubule triplets
cilia are short, hair like projections of the plasma membrane, many per cell, motile contains a core of 20 microtubules surrounded by a plasma membrane anchored to a basal body
axoneme is 9+2 arrangement of microtubules cilia
what are the functions of cilia move material across cell surface
flagella is similar in structure to cilia usually one per cell propel entire cell- like sperm
ribosomes are sites of protein synthesis, found freely in the cytoplasm consists of a small and large unit (made separately in nucleolus and assembled in cytoplasm)
polyribosomes are several ribosomes attached to the same messenger RNA function in synthesis of proteins used within the cell
rough endoplasmic reticulum continuous with nuclear membrane outer surface attached with ribosomes function in synthesis of proteins that will be transported into the goli complex for further modification
smooth endoplasmic reticulum extends from rough endoplasmic reticulum outer surface has NO ribosomes attached to it
what are the functions of smooth endoplasmic reticulum lipid metabolism and absorption steroid synthesis drug detoxification calcium uptake and storage (muscle tissue) membrane formation
cisternea are membranous sacs with bulging edges
cis face of golgi complex convex, forming face faces the rough endoplasmic reticulum
medial cisternae of golgi complex cisterneae between cis and trans face
trans face of goli complex concave, maturing face faces the plasma membrane
golgi complex function receives newly synthesized proteins from rough endoplasmic reticulum via transport vesicles sort and package proteins into vesicles for transport to different destinations
extracellular environment destination from goli complex secretory vesicles
plasma membrane destination from goli complex membrane vesicles
other organelles destination from goli complex transport vesicles
lysosomes are intracellular vesicles formed from goli complex contain hydrolytic enzymes- function in digestion
heterophagy is digestion of phagocytosed extracellular materials bacteria
autophagy is digestion of intracellular organelles worn out mitochondria
autolysis is cellular self digestion
lysomes are made in the ______ and packed in the ______ but remain within the cell rough endoplasmic reticulum golgi
peroxisomes are similar in structure to lysomoes contain oxidative enzymes- oxidases remove hydrogen atoms from various organic substances
mitochondria function production of high energy compounds ATP cation buffer for cytosol
mitochondrial matrix is central fluid filled cavity enclosed by inner membrane DNA, RNA, ribosomes, mitochondrial granules
nuclear envelope is double membrane outer membrane continuous with rough endoplasmic reticulum perforated by water filled nuclear pores
nucleolus is one or more per cell not surrounded by a membrane consists of DNA, RNA and protein site of ribosome synthesis
chromosome is consists of a long DNA molecule coiled together with histone proteins carries the cell's hereditary units called genes
chromosomes exist as what in non dividing cells chromatin
euchromatin are what DNA strands uncoiled for transcription
heterochromatin are what DNA tightly packed
once separated, the chromatids become... chromosomes
each somatic cell has how many pairs of chromosomes 23
gene is the entire nucleic acid sequence that is necessary for the synthesis of a functional gene product
gene product is polypeptide (protein) or RNA
Gene expression a gene's DNA is used as a template for synthesis of a specific protein involves transcription and translation
transcription happens in nucleus
translation happens in cytoplasm
RNA polymerase catalyzes transcription
promoter is a specific nucleotide sequence located near the beginning of a gene determines the transcription start site
terminator is a specific nucleotide sequence located near the end of a gene specifies the transcription stop site
exons are nucleotide sequence that code for parts of a protein
Introns are nucleotide sequence located between exons that do not code for parts of a protein
pre mRNA in transcription are contains information from both introns and exons
RNA splicing in transcription are removes intronic RNA segments and joins exotic RNA segments (functional mRNA) catalyzed by an enzyme called small nuclear ribonucleoproteins
transcription, what happens genetic information encoded in double stranded DNA is copied into a single stranded RNA molecule Only one of the two DNA strands serves as a template for RNA synthesis
translation, what happens the process of reading the mRNA nucleotide sequence to determine the amino acid sequence of the protein
genetic code is set of rules that relate the nucleotide sequence of a gene to the corresponding nucleotide sequence of mRNA and then to the amino acid sequence of a protein
codon a group of three consecutive nucleotides in RNA
RNA had how many nucleotides 4
proteins have how many amino acids 20
tRNA is what clover leaf like structure, one end carries a specific amino acid, the opposite end consists of a triplet of nucleotides
messenger RNA directs the synthesis of a protein
ribosomal RNA joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
transfer RNA binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein
gene mutations are permanent changes in the DNA nucleotide sequence of a gene
the reactants on which an enzyme acts are called substrates
induced fit is substrates enter the pocket moves to hug them and hold them in the right orientation
cofactors are small molecules or ions needed in the active site to perform a reaction when the amino acid side chains are not enough
cofactors are obtained from where? the diet
reversible inhibition is competitive, non competitive
competitive inhibition is an inhibitor that looks like the substrate fills up the active site and prevents substrate from entering
non competitive inhibition is an inhibitor binds to another part of the enzyme causing a conformational shift that ripples through the molecule to mess up the active site so it is less able to perform the reaction
irreversible inhibition is suicide inhibitor
suicide inhibitor is an inhibitor masquerading as a substrate covalently attaches to the active site penicillin
allosteric activation binding of an activator to a remote site of the enzyme that causes the active site to be an even more efficient catalyst (reverse of non competitive inhibition)
enzyme mutations are mutations in enzymes that alter their function or loss of them all together, disrupts reactions PKU
cofactor deficiencies are... dietary deficiency of required cofactors causes enzyme malfunction scurvy
collagen requires what hydroxylation of prolines to form the collagen triple helix neds ascorbate cofactor (vitamin C)
what enzyme in bacteria is required to form cross links in cell wall synthesis transpeptidase
methotrexate does what? kills fast dividing cells that need increased DNA synthesis treats cancer
dihydrofolate reducatese is required for thymine required for DNA synthesis
iron is not a... coenzyme
heme and iron are... cofactors
transcription occurs in the.. nucleus
translation occurs in the.. cytoplasm
transcription is catalyzed by... enzyme called RNA polymerase
what is a promoter? a specific nucleotide sequence located near the beginning of a gene determines the transcription start site
what is a terminator? a specific nucleotide sequence located near the end of a gene specifies the transcription stop site
what is an exon? nucleotide sequence that code for parts of a protein
what is an intron? nucleotide sequence located between exons that do not code for parts of a protein
define translation the process of reading the mRNA nucleotide sequence to determine the amino acid sequence of a protein
what is genetic code? a set of rules that relate the nucleotide sequence of a gene to the corresponding nucleotide sequence of mRNA and then to the amino acid sequence of a protein
what is a codon? a group of three consecutive nucleotides in RNA
translation occurs on what? the ribosomes
what are the three types of RNA? messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNA
what is messenger RNA? mRNA directs the synthesis of a protein
what is ribosomal RNA? rRNA joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes
what is transfer RNA? tRNA binds to an amino acid and holds it in place on a ribosome until it is incorporated into a protein
what is a somatic cell? any cell of the body other than a germ cell they are diploid (contain double sets of DNA) one member of chromosomes from each parent
what is germ cells? gamete (sperm or egg) or any precursor cell destined to become gamete haploid cells, one set of chromosomes
what is mitosis? somatic cell division: one parent cell gives rise to 2 identical daughter cells nuclear division and required for tissue repair and growth
what is meosis? reproductive cell division produces gametes (sperm or oocyte), occurs in testes and ovaries
what happens during interphase? parents cell duplicates its 23 pairs of chromosomes and cellular organelles
what happens during mitotic phase? parent cell divides in two identical daughter cells
Inter phase consists of what? G1, S, and G2 parts
what happens during G1 phase? cells metabolically active, duplicates organelles and cytosolic components starts replicating centrosomes
what happens during S phase? DNA is replicated two identical DNA molecules formed from each original DNA molecule
what happens during G2 phase? cell growth continues enzymes and other proteins are synthesized and replication of centrosome is completed
how long is G1 phase? 8-10 hours
how long is G2 phase? 4-6 hours
how long is S phase? 6-8 hours
cytokinesis is cytoplasmic division division of cytoplasm and organelles
what is a benign tumor? a tumor that does not metastasize or spread may be harmless
what is a malignant tumor? cancer has the ability to undergo metastasis and often fatal
what is metastasis the spread of cancerous cells to other parts of the body
key behaviors of cancer cells are proliferate rapidly and indefinitely= out of control invade surrounding normal tissue matastasis= detach from primary tumor and invade elsewhere do not kill themselves by apoptosis
what are the environmental risk factors that increase incidences of cancer? carcinogens, oncogenic viruses
carcinogens are... chemical substances or radiation that causes cancer (radiation or cigarettes)
oncogenic viruses are viruses that cause cancer
carcinogens induce mutations in proto-oncogenes and convert them to... oncogenes
what are oncogenes? cancer causing genes derived from proto-ongogenes have the ability to turn a normal cell into a cancerous cell
proto-ongogenes are encode proteins that regulate normal growth and development become oncogenes when they are mutated or inappropriately activated
dominant mutations are... only one gene copy needs to be mutated
activating mutations are gain of function- the oncogene product are more active in stimulating cell survival and proliferation
what are tumor suppressor genes? produce proteins that normally inhibit cell division
Created by: Chobchi