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Intro to Disease

Disease is any deviation or interruption from any normal body function
Pathology is the study of disease
Pathogenic (pathogenesis) means pertaining to the cause of a disease
Idiopathic means pertaining to an unknown disease
Etiology means the study of the cause
Lesion means any abnormal tissue
Signs are evidence of disease that can be seen
Examples of signs include these three pyrexia (fever) leukocytosis (too many white blood cells) jaundice (yellowing of the skin and sclera)
Symptoms are evidence of disease that is felt
Three examples of symptoms include lumbodynia (low back pain) N+V (nausea and vomiting) puritis (itching)
Syndrome means a combination of signs and symptoms
Dx (diagnosis) means the act of identifying a disease from its signs and symptoms
Px (prognosis) means the predicated outcome of a disease
Sequela means the aftermath of a disease
Acute means a sudden onset AKA paroxysmal
Chronic means recurring or persistent
Insidious means slow to appear
Exacerbation means to get worse or make worse
Remission means the signs and symptoms of a chronic disease subside
Relapse means a disease returns
Complication means a secondary disease develops with a primary disease
Terminal means a disease that ends in death
Mortality means the number of deaths caused by a disease
Palliative means relieving symptoms but not curing
Homeostatis is a steady state or balance that the body tries to maintain
Immunity is the ability of the body to defend itself against infections agents, foreign cells, and cancer cells
Inflammation occurs whenever there is trauma
Trauma is any wound or injury
Examples of trauma include: 1. Abrasion superficial mechanical damage to the skin
Three types of abrasion scrape chafe abrade
Excoriation superficial chemical damage to the skin
Contusion bleeding under the skin
Laceration tissue cut ripped or torn
Avulsion tearing any part of the body away from the whole
FX fracture
Infection infection
Allergic reaction allergic reaction
Damage caused by trauma stimulates the release of histamine from basophils (white blood cells)
release of histamine from basophils (white blood cells) starts the inflammatory response
Signs and symptoms of the inflammatory response include these five 1 Erythema (redness) 2 Inflammatory exudate (swelling edema) 3 Pain 4 Warmth 5 Pruitis (itching)
The body responds to trauma in this fashion because the more fluid (hyperemia) that is brought to traumatized area, the faster the healing will occur
The faster the tissue heals the less chance of infection
Suppurative, pyogenic, purulent and abcess all refer to pus
Pus is primarily made up of necrosed (dead) leukocytes (white blood cells) who faught the fight
Leukocytes (white blood cells) include monkeys never eat little bananas monocytes (phagocytic packman eating cells) neutrophils (phagocytic) eosinophils (allergies) lymphocytes (produce antibodies) basophils (release histamine)
An autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks the body's health tissues
Autoimmune diseases are more common in women (90%)
1.5 million Americans have lupus
Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a non contagious incurable inflammatory autoimmune disease
Two types of lupus include 1. DLE (discoid lupus erythematosus) 2. SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)
DLE (discoid lupus erythematosus) is characterized by a rash on the face, neck or scalp "butterfly rash"
Systemic lupus (SLE) is characterized by: Fatigue loss of energy
Cephalagia headache
Anxiety anxiety
MDD Major depressive disorder
Rash with photosensitivity light sensitive
Arthralgia joint pain
Myalgia muscle pain
Alopecia hair loss
Lymphadenopathy swollen lymphnoids
Splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
Bilateral pleurisy inflammation of the pleurae lining of the lungs
Pericarditis inflammation of the outer lining of the heart
Endocarditis inflammation of the inner part of the heart
CHF congestive heart failure
Atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque
Lupus nephritis inflammation of kidneys
DX diagnosis
Diagnosis of lupus in confirmed with an ANA Antinuclear antibody blood test
TX treatment
Treatment of lupus includes these four NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs) SAIDS (steroidal anti inflamaatory drugs) Analgesics (pain releivers) Immunosupressants (Benlysta)
Analgesics pain releivers
SAIDs steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
NSAIDs non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs
Immunosuppressants Benlysta
SLE (systemic lupus) can cause premature death due to renal (kidney) or cardiac (heart) failure
MS multiple sclerosis
GD Grave's disease
Type 1 DM diabetes mellitus
UC ulcerative colitis
CD Crohn's disease
Vitiligo loss of skin pigmentation
RA rheumatoid arthritis contractures
Scleroderma hardening of skin
Foreign protein (bacteria) include these four 1 virus 2 fungi 3 toxins 4 allergens
Any foreign protein that triggers an immune response is called an antigen
A normal response to an antigen is called an allergy
An unusual or exaggerated allergic response to an antigen is called anaphylaxis (analphylatic shock)
Antibodies are microscopic immune proteins that bind to antigens (tag it)
Immunity cased by the body creating antibodies (immune protein) is called active immunity
Antibodies tag the antigens for destruction by the immune system
Antibodies (immune proteins) are specialized
Specialized means that only a specific antigen (virus bacteria fungus) will be tagged
Active immunity can be achieved by (3 names meaning same thing) immunization aka inoculation or vaccination
A vaccine is ... attenuated (crippled) or inactivated (dead) antigen
An attenuated or inactivated antigen DOES NOT cause the disease but will... Trigger the B lymphocytes (B cells) to produce antibodies (immune proteins)
Antibody production is the only mechanism that can ... defeat a pathogenic (disease creating) virus
Multiple exposure to attenuated or inactivated antigen can cause a better and longer lasting immunity which is the reason for.. booster immunizations
Immunity caused by receiving antibodies from another is called... passive immunity
An example of a passive immunity is ... colostrum breast feeding for the first 2-5 days
Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the incidence of ... DM (diabetes mellitis) ,heart disease, obesity, eczema,lymphomas, and SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
A natural immunity inherited genetically from your ancestors is called an innate immunity
An antigen's power to overcome the defenses of it's host is called virulence (virulent)
A disease that can be transmitted from one person to another is called communicable (contagious)
To convey (spread) a communicable (contagious) disease from one person to another is called transmission
The most effective way to prevent the transmission of pathogens is proper hand washing
what does attenuated mean (when pertaining to a vaccine) crippled
what does inactivated mean (when pertaining to a vaccine) dead
Bacterial pathogens are disease creators
Strep streptococci
Proliferation (growth in numbers) of streptococci can cause strep throat
Full name for E. Coli escherichia
Full name for GC gonococci
Full name for C. diff clostridium difficile
Pertussis is AKA... whooping cough
Many bacterial infections can be treated by antibiotic therapy
Antibiotic means pertaining to against life (bacterial)
Viral pathogens include... HAV HBV HCV
What is HAV HBV HCV Hepatitis A Virus Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis C Virus
What is influenza flu
What is a complication of the flu pneumonia
what does pneumonia mean inflammation of a lung
Coryza is AKA the common cold
Varicella is AKA chicken pox
sequela means aftermath
what is the sequela of varicella (chicken pox) shingles
Rubeola AKA measles
Parotitis AKA mumps
Rubella AKA German measles
What is a complication of polio Motor paralysis
What does HIV stand for Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV is primarily transmitted these 3 ways Sexual contact, sharing needles, the entry of contaminated body fluids
HIV is not transmitted through ... Casual contact, 3! Shaking hands, eating , kissing
The average time period between HIV and aids is 2-10 years
What does aids stand for Acquired immune dificiency syndrome
The diagnosis of aids is given when what two things occur Opportunistic infections, and/or a cd4 t lymphocyte count <200
Opportunistic infections associated with aids ...name 5 TB, pneumocystis (Cabrinii) pneumonia (pcp) , ca Candida albicans, cmv cytomegalovirus, ks kaposi's sarcoma
Blood tests to detect the HIV antibodies include these 2... ELISA , western blot
Treatment for the HIV and aids include HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy
What do antibiotics have no affect on Viral infections
When is it appropriate to prescribe an antibiotic for a viral infection If the patient is immunocomprimised , or if the patient is afflicted with a chronic disease
Why would an antibiotic be prescribed to someone who is immunocomprimised To stop a secondary bacterial infection
Tinea corporis is Ring worm
Tinea pedis is Athletes foot
Tinea Cruris is Jock itch
Tinea capitis Scalp
Tinea unguium Nails
What do you use to treat dermatophytosis Anti fungal medications
Micro-organisms that are not pathogenic are called Normal flora
Helminths refer to a Parasitical worm infestation
Infestation means To live in or on as a parasite
A parasite is A organism that benefits at the expense of the host
Name 3! Helminths Roundworms pinworms tapeworms
The diagnosis of helminths is confirmed with what type of test O + P fecal test
What does the O+P stand for in an o+p fecal test Ova and parasite
Treatment for Helminths include anthelmintic medications
micro-organisms that are not pathogenic are called normal flora
Many viruses are harmless to humans (FACT) turn card for more info.... Fungi (yeast) are needed to make beer, bread, and cheese
The number of NEW cases of a disease in a population is called incidence
The number of EXISTING cases of a disease prevalence
A disease that ALWAYS occurs at LOW levels in a population endemic
A disease that OCCURS at HIGH levels in a population epidemic
An epidemic that spreads over a large area WORLDWIDE is called pandemic
A disease that SUDDENLY occurs in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then SUBSIDES is called an Outbreak
The separation of persons who may or may not be infected from healthy people until the period of infections risk is passed is called quarantine
CDC(P) stands for the Center for disease and control prevention
The incidence of obesity, cancer, heart disease, and low immune response is associated with sleep deprivation
The terms neoplasm, neoplasia, and tumor are used to describe Ca or CA
Ca CA stands for Cancer
A change in biochemistry of a gene resulting in the production of abnormal cells is called a mutation
A neoplasm that invades other tissues is called malignant
The terms carcinoma and sarcoma refer to malignancies
The ability to generate tumors at distant sites is called metastasis (metastatic) (mets)
A tumor that does not metastasize is called benign
what does metastasize mean spread
Lipoma AKA fatty tumor
myoma AKA muscle tumor
angioma AKA vascular or lymphatic
nevus AKA mole
papilloma AKA polyp or wart
adenoma AKA glandular tumor
UVA and UVB radiation from sunlight or tanning beds increase the risk of skin malignancies
UV light also destroys collagen causing... wrinkles and accelerates aging
STI's especially HPV, early sexual activity, and multiple sexual partners increases the chance of what? Cervical malignacies
Estrogen therapy such as BCP's or HRT can increase the incidences of Breast Malignancies
what does EPA stand for environmental protection agency
6 malignancies including breast, liver, rectum, mouth, throat and esophageal may be caused by Alcohol (ETOH)
A sedentary lifestyle means... little or no excercise
A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of these six malignancies 1 breast 2 lung 3 ovarian 4 endometrial 5 colon 6 prostate
The average American spends 9 waking hours sitting (probably cause they are taking Mark's classes!)
What is prophylaxis protection
Cancer prophylaxis recommendations include: 30 minutes a day walking 5 days a week
Signs and symptoms of Cancer include change in bowel habits, a sore that does not heal, unusual bleeding or discharge, thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere, indigestion, dysphagia, obvious change in a verruca or nevus, nagging cough or hoarseness,
What is usually not an early sign of cancer pain
the diagnosis of cancer is usually confirmed with a biopsy (BX)
Names 3! types of biopsies Frozen sections, needle biopsy, exfoliative cytology
exfoliative cytology (study of cells) refers to ... Name 3! Scrapings, washings secretions
Cancer staging refers to the size and spread
Cancer grading refers to the aggressiveness of the cancer
1 Antineoplastic medications (chemo), 2 radiation therapy,3 hormonal therapy, 4 surgery are Treatment for cancer
Proliferation of gonococci (GC) can cause the STD known as gonorrhea
Bacterial Pathogens are disease creators
Strep is streptococci
Proliferation is growth in numbers
Proliferation of strep can cause strep throat
Staph is staphylococci
Proliferation (grown in numbers) of staphylococci (staph) can cause impetigo (bacterial skin infection)
Salmonella is a bacterial pathogen
Proliferation of salmonella can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of stomach and small intestins) AKA food poisoning
E. coli stands for escherichia coli
Proliferation of E. coli can cause UTI's (urinary tract infections) and gastroenteritis
GC is gonococci
Proliferation of gonococci (GC) can cause the STD gonorrhea
C. diff is colostridium difficile
Proliferation of C. diff can cause these two 1 extreme diarrhea (loose watery stools) and 2 dehydration (hypovolemic shock)
Diptheria is a bacterial pathogen
Proliferation of diptheria can cause these two 1 myocarditis (inflammation of the myocardium) and 2 neuritis (inflammation of nerves)
Pertussis AKA whooping cough (uncontrollable violent coughing)
Complications of pertussis (whooping cough) include these three 1 seizure disorders 2 mental retardation and 3 death
Approximately 500 different types of bacteria have been identified living in the average human mouth
The average human has approximately one million billion bacteria living in and on the body True
Viral pathogens include these three 1 HAV 2 HBV 3 HCV
Complications of HBV and HCV include cirrhosis (degeneration of the liver)
Influenza is the flu virus (A+B)
A complication of influenza is pneumonia (inflammation of a lung)
Coryza (200 viral strains) AKA the common cold
Varicella AKA chicken pox
Complications of varicella include these two 1 pneumonia 2 cerebral edema
The sequela (aftermath) of varicella (chicken pox) can be herpes zoster AKA shingles
Complications of herpes zoster (shingles) include these two 1 extreme pain 2 scarring (cicatrices)
Complications of parotitis include these two 1 meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and 2 bilateral orchitis (inflammation of the testes)
1 congenital cataracts 2 deafness 3 heart defects 4 mental retardation are Complications of rubella (german measles) include these 4
A Complication of polio myelitis is motor paralysis (inability to move)
Dermatophytosis refers to an integumentary (skin, hair & nails) fungal infection
E. coli (escherichia coli) in the large bowel produce vitamin K
Oral, pulmonary, laryngeal, pharyngeal, esophageal, colorectal, pancreatic, hepatic, renal, gastric, uterine and bladder malignancies are increased by the use of tobacco
esophageal, gastric, breast and colorectal malignancies may be caused by poor diet (insufficient fruits and vegetables)
STI's are sexually transmitted infections
HPV is human papilloma virus
STI and HPV early sexual activity and multiple sexual partners increases the risk of cervical malignancies
Asbestos mesothelioma
Radon lung
Benzene leukemia
The number of chemicals in commercial products has reached 80,000
Carcinogenic means cancer creating
The EPA has required testing on 200 commercial products and restricted 5
Environmental agent pollution can include air and water pollution
Genetic predisposition can include breast ovarian and bladder malignancies
Hereditary diseases are also called genetic (familial) diseases
Hereditary diseases are caused by a defective gene
Genes represent the blueprint of how the body is constructed
The blueprint is also expressed in an abbreviation called DNA
Genes are found in groups called chromosomes
Normally, each human has this number of chromosomes 46 chromosomes
Each parent donates this number of chromosomes to each child 23 chromosomes
Hereditary diseases include these 5 1 Polydactyl (extra findgers and toes) 2 Achondroplasia (dwarfism) 3 PKU (enzyme dificiency)
PKU is phyenylketonuria
Enzymes are chemical catalysts
Catalysts refer to anything that causes reactions to occur
Neonates (newborns) are routinely tested for PKU (phenylketonuria)
Untreated PKU's cause MR (mental retardation)
TX for PKU includes a modified diet of no protein (milk, meat, eggs, nuts, legumes, aspartene)
Galactosemia is a dietary enzyme deficiency in Caucasians that can cause these 4 (BELK) 1 liver, 2 eye, 3 kidney and 4 brain damage
Treatment for galactosemia includes diet modification (no galactose no dairy)
SCA (sickle cell anemia) occurrs when erythrocytes (RBC's) are produced with a sickle shape that inhibits respiration (exchange of gases) and causes agglutination
Agglutination refers to the clumping together of the deformed erythrocytes (RBCs)
Agglutination can cause SCC Sickle Cell Crises
Vascular occlusions infarcts
tissue ischemia oxygen depravation
Necrosis death
Thoracodynia chest pain
Dyspnea difficulty breathing or SOB shortness of breath
Hemolytic anemai erythrocyte RBC destruction
Signs and symptoms of SCC also include sever pain and organ failure
SCA primarily affects African Americans
DX of SCA is confirmed with a microscopic examination of the erythrocytes (RBC)
TX for SCA includes these 3 Blood transfusions, analgesics and cO2 (oxygen) therapy
Albinism occurs when there is an absence of melanin (skin pigmentation)
Achromatopsia is color blindness (red and green)
Hemophilia is a coagulopathy or disease condition of clotting
Coagulopathy occurs with an absence of a clotting factor
CF (cystic fibrosis) is characterized by these 2 pulmonary (lung) and pancreatic dysfunctions
DS is down syndrome
DS occurs when there is a trisomy of chromosome number 21
The incidence of DS is higher among children born to mothers over the age of 35
There are ____ (number) characteristics of DS nine or 9 1 mild to profound MR 2 eyes appear slanted and wide set 3 protruding tounge 4 short flat nose 5 short stature 6 very affectionate 7 straight crease extends across the palms of the hand 8 pinky finger is shorter 9 short life span
The DX of genetic diseases can be obtained by performing an amniocentesis or CVS (chorionic villus sampling)
Congenital defects are acquired during gestation (pregnancy) not heredity
1 hypoxia (deficient oxygen) 2 maternal infection 3 drug use 4 malnutrition 5 radiation are common causes of congenital defects
There are ___ (number) of common congenital defects seven or 7
CP (congenital) cerebral palsy
CHD (congenital) congenital heart defect
SB (congenital) spina bifida
CL (congenital) cleft lip
CP (congenital) cleft palate
EA (congenital) esophageal atresia
PS (congenital) pyloric stenosis
Created by: Denjack