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Bonini Flashcards

US History Vocabulary Flashcards

located along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors Coastal Plain
imaginary lines that run north to south on a map Lines of Longitude
extend from Eastern Canada to Western Alabama; includes the piedmont; has old, eroded mountains (oldest mountains in N. America Appalachian Highlands
imaginary lines that run east to west on a map Lines of Latitude
wrapped around the Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape; hills worn by erosion & hundreds of lakes carved by ice Canadian Shield
rolling flat lands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills Interior Lowlands
flat lands that gradually increase in elevation westward; mostly grasslands Great Plains
rugged mountains that stretch from Alaska to almost Mexico; high elevations; contains the Continental Divide, which determines the directional flow of rivers Rocky Mountains
located west of the Rocky Mountains and east of the Sierra Nevadas and Cascades; varying elevations containing isolated mountains; contains Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Basin & Range
located on the Pacific Coast, stretching from California to Canada; has rugged mountains and fertile valleys Coastal Range
served as a highway for explorers, early settlers, and later immigrants Atlantic Ocean
provided access to other parts of the world (Asia) Pacific Ocean
used by the French and Spanish as an exploration route to Mexico and other parts of America Gulf of Mexico
port cities grew in the Midwest along these lakes Great Lakes
used to transport farm and industrial products; links to other ports in the U.S. and around the world Mississippi River and Missouri River
forms part of the border between the U.S. and northeastern Canada; connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean St. Lawrence River
gateway to the West Ohio River
forms the border between the U.S. and Mexico Rio Grande River
explored by Lewis and Clark Columbia River
explored by the Spanish Colorado River
lived in the Arctic, Alaska and northern Canada; climate is below freezing most of the year; lived in houses made of ice called igloos Inuit
lived in Pacific Northwest; climate is mild and rainy; lived in houses made of plank boards Kwakiutl
lived in the Great Plains; dry, interior grasslands; lived in teepees, which were tents made of bison skin Lakota
lived in Southwest desert, present-day Arizona and New Mexico; climate is hot and dry; lived in adobe homes near mountains and cliffs Pueblo
lived in northeastern North America (Eastern Woodlands); four distinct seasons and heavily forested; lived in longhouses Iroquois
things that come directly from nature • fish • trees • clay • stones natural resources
people working to produce goods and services • fisherman • hunters • farmer human resources
someone who studies human behavior and cultures of the past through the recovery and analysis of artifacts archaeologist
goods produced and used in order to make other goods and services • bow and arrow • canoes • tools capital resource
one of North America’s oldest archaeological sites; located along the Nottoway River in southeastern Virginia; archaeologists found evidence that people lived here 18,000 years ago Cactus Hill
sailed for England; explored eastern Canada John Cabot
sailed for Spain; claimed the Southwest of the U.S. for Spain Francisco Coronado
sailed for France; claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France Robert La Salle
sailed for France; founded the French settlement of Quebec Samuel de Champlain
made voyages of discovery along the coast of West Africa Portugal
controlled trade in West Africa from 300-1600; traded gold for metals, cloths, and other goods with Portugal Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
economics: gold, natural resources, trade; spreading Christianity; competition for trade/cultural superiority Motivations for Exploration
poor maps and navigational tools; disease; fear of the unknown; lack of adequate supplies Obstacles to Exploration
exchanged goods and ideas with American Indians; improved navigational tools and ships; claimed new territories Accomplishments of Exploration
taught farming techniques to Europeans; believed land was to be shared and NOT owned American Indians
founded by the Separatists from the Church of England who wanted to avoid religious persecution (hint: pilgrims) Plymouth Colony
founded by the Puritans who wanted to avoid religious persecution Massachusetts Bay Colony
founded by the Virginia Company of London as an economic venture Jamestown Settlement
founded by Sir Walter Raleigh as an economic venture; known as The Lost Colony Roanoke Island
founded by the Quakers who wanted to practice their religion without interference Pennsylvania Colony
founded by people in English debtors prisons who wanted economic freedom Georgia Colony
specialized in shipbuilding, fishing, naval supplies, and metal tools; moderate summers and cold winters; villages and church; town meetings New England Colonies
specialized in livestock, grains, and fish; mild winters and moderate climate; diverse religions and lifestyles; market towns Mid-Atlantic Colonies
specialized in cotton, indigo, rice, tobacco and forest products; mild winters and hot, humid summers; plantations and Church of England; counties Southern Colonies
lived predominately in the South; owned slaves; were educated in some cases; had rich social life Large Landowners (plantation masters)
worked the land according to the region; relied on family members for labor farmers
craftsmen who worked in towns and on plantations; lived in small villages and cities artisans
caretakers and homemakers; not allowed to vote; few opportunities for getting an education women
people who did not have money to pay for their passage to America and agreed to work without pay for the person who paid for their passage; free at end of contract indentured servants
allowed to own land ; NOT allowed to vote; had economic freedom and worked for pay free African Americans
captured in Africa and sold to slave traders; shipped to colonies and sold into slavery; owned as property and had NO rights; often born into slavery enslaved African Americans (slaves)
focusing on making one or few products; specialty Specialization
two or more people who depend on each other for goods and services Interdependence
no representation in Parliament; power of colonial governors; King’s control over colonial legislatures; opposed taxes; Proclamation of 1763 Reasons for Colonial Dissatisfaction
document that said colonists could not settle in the land west of the Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763
unalienable rights: life, liberty, pursuit of happiness; governments are established to protect those rights; government derives power from the people; people have a right to change a government that violates their rights Declaration of Independence
five colonists were shot and killed after taunting British soldiers Boston Massacre
the Sons of Liberty, led by Sam Adams and Paul Revere, dumped chests of tea into Boston Harbor to protest laws & taxes Boston Tea Party
delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia to discuss problems with Britain and promote independence 1st Continental Congress
first armed conflict of the Revolutionary War; “shot heard around the world” Lexington and Concord
the “turning point” of the Revolutionary War; France decided to join the Americans and fight against the British Battle of Saratoga
British General Lord Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington & the continental army; the last major battle of the Revolutionary War Surrender at Yorktown
Britain officially recognized American independence with this; peace treaty between the Americans and Great Britain Treaty of Paris (1783)
prominent member of the Continental Congress; helped frame (write) the Declaration of Independence; helped gain French support for American independence Benjamin Franklin
commander of Continental Army; 1st President of the US; federal court was established during presidency; Bill of Rights added to Constitution; helped create national capital in D.C. George Washington
championed the cause for independence during the American Revolution; 2nd President of the US; a two-party system emerged during his presidency John Adams
main author of the Declaration of Independence; 3rd President of the US; bought the Louisiana Purchase from France Thomas Jefferson
outspoken member of Virginia’s House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with his “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death” speech Patrick Henry
patriot who made a daring ride to warn colonists of British soldier arrival Paul Revere
British king during the American Revolution King George III
former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence Phillis Wheatley
British general who surrendered to George Washington and the continental army at Yorktown Lord Cornwallis
first constitution of United States had many weaknesses: 1. weak national government 2. congress couldn’t tax or regulate trade 3. no common currency 4. each state had only one vote 5. no executive or judicial branches Articles of Confederation
supreme law of the United States US Constitution
first 10 amendments of the Constitution (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, right to bear arms); written guarantee of individual rights Bill of Rights
4th President of the US; main author of the US Constitution; president during the War of 1812 (against Great Britain) James Madison
5th President of the US; introduced the Monroe Doctrine James Monroe
-made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate (Congress) -makes laws Legislative Branch
-made up of the President, Vice President, and cabinet -enforces or carries out laws Executive Branch
-made up of the Supreme Court (9 Justices) -interprets or decides meaning of laws -makes sure laws follow the Constitution Judicial Branch
decided how many votes each state would have in the Senate and House of Representatives (Congress) Great Compromise
African American surveyor and astronomer who helped design the layout of Washington, DC Benjamin Banneker
caused European nations to gain respect for the United States War of 1812
warned European nations not to interfere with the Western Hemisphere Monroe Doctrine
-Legislative Branch -Executive Branch -Judicial Branch 3 Branches of Government
President Jefferson bought this from France and it nearly doubled the size of the U.S. Louisiana Purchase
Spain gave this to the U.S. through a treaty Florida
added as a state after becoming an independent republic Texas
split between the U.S. and Great Britain Oregon Territory
war with Mexico resulted in this state and the Southwest Territory becoming part of the U.S. California
the belief that expansion was for the good of the U.S. and was the right of the U.S. Manifest Destiny
invented by Eli Whitney; increased the production of cotton which increased the need for slave labor cotton gin
invented by Cyrus McCormick and Jo Anderson; increased the productivity of the American farmer reaper
improved by Robert Fulton; provided faster water transportation steamboat
provided faster land transportation steam locomotive
a person who organizes resources to bring a new or better good/service to market in hopes of making a profit entrepreneur
people who worked to end slavery abolitionist
the right to vote suffrage
led hundreds of slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman
wrote the Liberator and worked for the immediate emancipation of all slaves William Lloyd Garrison
wrote the North Star and worked for rights for African Americans and women to better their lives Frederick Douglass
a former slave, was a nationally known advocate for equality & justice Isabella (Sojourner) Truth
an advocate to gain voting rights for women & equal rights for all Susan B. Anthony
played a leadership role in the women's rights movement Elizabeth Cady Stanton
someone who is the first to think of or make something inventor
Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state Missouri Compromise
California entered as a free state and the Southwest would decide the slavery issue for themselves Compromise of 1850
people in each state would decide the slavery issue through popular sovereignty Kansas-Nebraska Act
a tax on products from other countries to make people choose locally-made goods over foreign-made goods tariff
16th President of the US; wanted to preserve the Union during the Civil War; wrote the “Gettysburg Address” Abraham Lincoln
president of the Confederate States of America (CSA) during the American Civil War Jefferson Davis
leader of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Civil War; turned down command of Union Army; urged Southerners to accept defeat and unite as Americans Robert E. Lee
General of the Union Army; accepted Robert E. Lee’s surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, VA Ulysses S. Grant
skilled Confederate general during the Civil War Stonewall Jackson
nurse who founded the American Red Cross Clara Barton
African American soldier and later naval captain who was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism during the Civil War; went on to become a US Congressman Robert Smalls
written by President Lincoln; said the Civil War was to preserve the government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.” Gettysburg Address
marked the beginning of the Civil War Fort Sumter
first major battle in the Civil War 1st Battle of Manassas (Bull Run)
made “freeing slaves” the new focus of the war; many freed slaves joined the Union army Emancipation Proclamation
gave the Union control over the Mississippi River; divided the South in half Battle of Vicksburg
the turning point of the Civil War; the North repelled Lee’s invasion Battle of Gettysburg
Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant here, marking the end of the Civil War Appomattox Court House
to set free emancipate
the people choose/rule popular sovereignty
Created by: MrsBonini