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MCAT Bio JBrosch

Lysozyme antibacterial enzyme, degrades Peptidoglycan (hence it's freakin antibacterial)
Mesoderm musculoskeletal, heart, kidneys, excretory system, gonads
Endoderm Digestive system, respiratory system, liver, pancreas, thyroid, bladder
Ectoderm skin, nervous, brain, eyes
Cell Cycle G1 (growing) --> S (DNA replication) --> G2 (growing) --> M (division)
Reverse Transcriptase transcribes DNA from RNA; used by retroviruses
Sodium/ Potassium Pump 2 K+ in 3 Na+ out NET -1
Endospore Dormant bacteria
kinase vs phosphatase phosphorylates; dephosphorylates (via hydrolysis)
Fungi chitin
Temporary Immune Response susceptible multiple times, but not in immediate succession
Plasma Cells differentiates B cells
Bile salts steroid acids; conjugated with aa's to increase solubility in H2O to EMULSIFY fats; nonpolar/ ionic
Protein kinases phosphorylate at Tyrosine, Serine and Threonine (all have -OH)
Proteins are made by... dehydration synthesis
SDS coats proteins with negative charge
Adrenal Cortex secretes?? mineral corticoids (aldosterone), cortical sex hormones, glucocorticoids (cortisol).
Cortisol increases blood glucose
Corpus Luteum in the ovaries, secretes Estrogen/ Progesterone
Hypothalamus synthesizes Oxytocin and ADH hunger/ thirst/ sex regulates anterior pituitary
How to you make sperm? primary spermatocyte secondary spermatocyte spermatid spermatozoa
Prophage/ Provirus virus that has integrated its DNA into host DNA
Medulla oblongata controls breathing
Thyroid secretes thyroxine & triiodothyronine (increase metabolism) & calcitonin (decreases Ca)
Parathyroid secretes parathyroid hormone (increases Ca)
Aldosterone stimulates reabsorption of WATER and SODIUM to distal tubule and collecting duct High [ ] --> concentrated urine --> increased BP
ADH (vasopressin) Makes distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct more permeable to WATER. High [ ] --> concentrated urine
Urine vs blood Urine is HYPERTONIC to blood
Ductus venosus (fetal circulation) Shunts blood away from LIVER
Ductus arteriosus (fetal circulation) shunts blood away from PULMONARY ARTERY to AORTA
Foramen Ovale (fetal circulation) directs blood away from PULMONARY ARTERY to LEFT ATRIUM
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum modified ER stores Ca in muscle cell Calcium release --> muscle contraction
Tropic Hormones stimulate other endocrine glands
Adrenal MEDULLA secretes epi and norepinepherine
Somatostatin inhibits both glucagon and insulin secretion
Peroxisomes make hydrogen peroxide and digest fats into smaller molecules
Nucleolus site of rRNA synthesis
Holoenzyme enzyme w/ cofactor bound (vs apoenzyme w/o)
Allosteric enzyme 2 or more active sites (active/ inactive states)
Allosteric inhibitor Stabilizes INACTIVE configuration
Zymogen INACTIVE form of enzyme
1 map unit 1% recombinant frequency
transformation (bacteria) incorporate foreign chromosome fragments
conjugation (bacteria) transfer genetic mat'l b/w 2 bacteria F plasmid pili
transduction (bacteria) virus carries DNA b/w 2 bacteria
Classification system for organisms Domain>kingdom>phylum>class>order>family>genus>species
Created by: 563471636
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