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Biochemistry 2

Exam 2

When does amino acids get broken down? amino acid surplus, protein rich diet, starvation or uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Amino acids are broken down into what? Ammonia and carbon skeleton
Ammonia is converted to what? Carbamoyl Phosphate (C1N1)
Define transamination Reaction where an alpha-AA and and alpha-ketoacid "exchange" the alpha-AA and alpha-keto group
How does nitrogen get removed from the body? Mainly in the form of urea
What vitamin does a transamination reaction rely on? pyridoxin-Vit B6
Special function of glutamate Source of NH4 that gets converted to carbamoyl phosphate, this is than channeled into the urea cycle
Special function of glutamine Formed from glutamate and NH4 in extra hepatic tissue and has the function of transporting NH4 to liver
Special function of alanine Formed from the transamination reaction of pyruvate(under anaerobic conditions) in skel muscle. Carries pyruvat and nitrogen to the liver, where the nitrogen gets channelled into the urea cycle while pyruvate can undergo gluconeogenesis
9 essential amino acids His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Val
3 conditionally essential amino acids Arg, Cys, Tyr
Why are tyrosine and cysteine called conditionally essential They rely on essential amino acids Phe and Met
Three alpha-ketoacids that are common metabolites and the AA they are converted to by transamination pyruvate - alanine alpha-ketogluterate - glutamate oxaloacetate - aspartate
Two exclusively ketogenic amino acids lysine and leucine
Six common metabolites of AA breakdown(catabolism) pyruvate, fumerate, oxaloacetate, acetyl-coa, alpha-ketogluterate, succinyl-coa
Four common metabolites as precursors to AA(anabolism) 3-phosphoglycerate, pyruvate, alpha-ketogluterate, oxalacetate
6 AA broken down to acetyl CoA Trp, Phe, Tyr, ile, Leu, Lys
6 AA broken down to pyruvate Thr, Gly, Ser, Trp, Ala, Cys
5 AA broken down to alpha-ketogluterate Arg, Pro, Glu, Gln, His
4 AA broken down to succinyl-CoA Ili, Met, Thr, Val
2 AA broken down to oxaloacetate Asp, Asn
2 AA broken down to fumerate Phe, Tyr
AA derived from alpha-ketogluterate Glu, Gln, Pro, Arg
AA derived from 3-phosphoglycerate Ser, Cys, Gly
AA derived from Pyruvate Ala
AA derived from oxalacetate Asp, Asn
AA precursor for Heme Gly
AA precursor for creatine Gly, Arg, Met
AA precursor for gluthione Gly, Cys, Glu
AA precursor for NO Arg
AA precursor for serotonin Trp
AA precursor for GABA Glu
AA precursor for histamine His
Breakdown products of purines uric acid
Breakdown products of pyrimidines NH4 to urea
Histamine comes from what AA His
GABA comes from what AA Glutamate
Serotonin comes from what AA Tryptophan
DOPA, dopamine, NE, Ep comes from what AA Tyrosine
Created by: 1277880004