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Physio1 Quiz 6

NWHSU Physio 1 Quiz 6

The conduction zone is made up of? Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles
Job of conducting zone? Brings air into lungs
Where is smooth muscle found? All parts of the conducting zone
In what zone does gas exchange occur? Respiratory zone
The respiratory zone is made up of? Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs
What receptors are present on bronchioles? Beta2 and muscarinic
Beta2 receptors cause what? Broncodilation
Muscarnic receptors cause what? Broncoconstriction
Define asthma? Constriction of terminal broncholes
How to asthma drugs work? They are a beta2 agonist. It stimulates the beta2 receptors to cause broncodilation
What are the 6 causes to asthma? Exercise, climate, allergies, stress, elevation, chemicals
Repeated asthma attacks are called? Status asthmaticus
What produces surfactant? Type II pneuomocytes
What is surfactants job? Reduce surface tension
What is the job of alveolar macrophages? Keep alveoli free of dust and debris
Define Atelectasis? Collapsed alveoli due to lack of surfactant
Define pulmonary artery supply? Cardiac output from the RIGHT side of the heart
Is pulmonary blood flow evenly or unevenly distributed? UNevenly
How much of tidal volume fills the anatomic dead space? 1/3
Define anatomical dead space? Volume in the conducting airways. About 150ml
Define physiological dead space? Total volume of the lungs that does NOT participate in gas exchange and in a normal persons the physiological dead space is nearly equal to anatomic dead space
Does physiological dead space participate in gas exchange? NO
What happens when the physiological dead space increases? More and more aveoli in the respiratory zone
Define minute ventilation? Volume of air into and out of the lungs per unit time, expressed as minute ventilation which = VT x breaths/min
Define alveolar ventilation (VA)? VA= (VT-VD) x breaths/min
Define hypoxic vasoconstriction? The lungs are the only tissue that can redirect its own blood flow
Majority of CO2 in body is carried by? Bicarbonate
Majority of O2 in body is carried by? Oxygen
How many molecules of oxygen can bind to hemoglobin? 4
Describe restrictive lung disease? Restricted on OUTSIDE, alveoli can not expand. Ex: Interstitial fibrosis
Describe COPD? Problems INSIDE alveoli. Ex: asthma, chronic bronchitis
During INSPIRATION, the diaphragm moves? DOWN
During EXPIRATION, the diaphragm moves? UP
What muscles are used in INSPIRATION? External intercostal muscles
What muscles are used in EXPIRATION? Internal intercostal muscles
Inspiration or expiration more work? Inspiration
What is the natural elastic recoil? Expiration
Define Emphysema? Condition where you loose elastic fibers of the lung and as result, compliance increases (cant snap back)
Is intrapleural pressure positive or negative? Negative
Job of intrapleural pressure? Keeps the alveoli expanded or prevents them from collapsing and helps to keep chest wall intact
What happens in Pneumothorax? Alveoli collapse and chest wall collapses
What keeps alveoli from collapsing? Surfactant and interpleural pressure
The larger the alveolus the ____ the collapsing pressure SMALLER - Law of Laplace
When is surfactant synthesized? 24 week gestation
When is surfactant almost present by? 35 weeks
Surfactant is made up of? DPPC that lines the walls of the alveoli and breaks up the forces bw the liquid molecules lining the alveoli
During Atelectasis, lung compliance is ? Decreased
Define Fick's Law? Gases move by simple diffusion and volume of gas transferred depends upson diffusion coefficient of the gas, surface area, partial pressure difference, and thickness of the membrane
What is the diffusion coefficient for CO2? 20 times more than oxygen
What affects gas exchange? Thickness of alveoli, surface area, gas quality, blood flow, # of blood cells
Define Erythropoietin? Increase RBC. Comes from the KIDNEYS in response to low O2-then stimulates bone marrow
Total gas concentration is the sum of? Dissolved gas, bound gas (O2)s, and chemically modified gas (CO2)
Mixed venous blood comes from? Right side of heart from the pulmonary artery (from right ventricle)
Systemic arterial blood goes to? Left side of heart by pulmonary vein
Define Methemglobinemia? Fe3+ state that does not bind to O2 (causes nitrates, sulfonamides or enzyme deficiency)
Define Fetal Hb? Two beta chains are replaced by gamma chains, higher affinity for O2 *Replaced in the first year of life*
Define Sickle Cell Anemia? Sickle cell rods taht distort the cell have a decreased affinity for O2 and occludes the blood vessel
What causes the O2 curve to shift to the RIGHT? *Bohr effect* Increase:PCO2, Temp, 2,3-DPG (high altitude)Decrease: Ph
What causes the O2 curve to shift to the LEFT? Decrease: PCO2, temp, 2,3-DPG Hb-F / Increase: Ph
Does CO2 reduce/increase the number of sites available for O2? Reduces
When CO2 reduces the number of sites available for O2, this causes the O2Hb curve to shift? To the LEFT
What two sources make up the physiologic shunt? Bronchial blood flow and Coronary venous blood
Bronchial and Coronary blood drains to what ventricle? Drains to left ventricle rather than going to the lungs to be oxygenated **SO NOT ALL BLOOD HERE IS OXYGENATED
H+ is buffered by Hemoglobin (Hb-H)inside the red blood cells
HCO3 exchanges for what ? Exchanged for Cl- and is transported in plasma
What doe Hypoxic vasoconstriction depend upon? PAO2 (This occurs when there is a drop in PAO2)
High levels of PAO2 keeps the vascular smooth muscle ___? Relaxed
During a drop in PAO2, vasoconstriction occurs and redirects? Blood flow from poorly ventilated alveoli of the lungs to well ventilated alveoli
Nitric oxide causes what in smooth muscle? Relaxation
What happens in high altitude? Hypoxemia and global vasoconstriction of the pulmonary arterioles leading to increase in resistance which then leads to right ventricle hypertrophy
What happens in fetal circulation? PAO2 is much lower in the fetus than in the mother productin vasoconstriction. Fetus has advantage of carrying HBF
What happens at birth to the neonate? First breath increase PAO2 to 100mmhg and pulmonary blood flow increase
Define hypoxemia? Decrease in arterial PO2 and is determined by the difference in alveolar (PAO2) and PO2 of systemic arterial blood (PaO2)
What are the causes of hypoxemia? High altitude, hypoventilation, diffusion defects, V/Q defects, right to left shunts
What are a few causes of hypoxia? Decrease O2 delivery to tissues, decreased cardiac output, decreased O2 content of Hb, Anemia, CO poisoning, cyanide
Cyanide poisionging interferes with? Decreased utilization of oxygen in tissues *Problem at celluar level
Created by: wizdumbslp