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Soc Research Ch4

Need to Know - Social Science Research Methods Ch4

What are the terms with which we organize experience - a label that is applied to things with similar characteristics or attributes? Concepts
What are things that exist analytically but not directly observable? Constructs
What are the two important qualities of variables? Thought to influence or be influenced by another thing. A thing that has varying attributes.
What is a concept or construct of interest to a researcher that influences or is influenced by another thing and has varying attributes? Variable
What is a characteristic or quality that describes a thing? Attribute
What is it called when we posit a relationship between different variables we have identified as having interest to us? Hypothesis
What is a variable called that is believed to influence (cause) another variable? Independent variable
What is a variable called that is thought to be influenced by another variable (effect)? Dependent variable
What determines whether a variable is dependent or independent? Hypothesis
What provides a causal link between the independent and dependent variables? Intervening variables
What is it called when variables vary in the opposite direction? Negative relationship
What is it called when variables vary in the same direction? Positive relationship
What is it called when we specify what it is we will observe and how we will measure it? Operational definition
What does operationalizing a variable entail? Listing the characteristics or attributes of the variable so that you can count the presence or absence of these in the real world.
What are the two rules to keep in mind when operationalizing a variable? The list must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.
What is the degree of precision with which a variable is measured? Levels of measurement
What variable names the different attributes of a variable so the presence or absence of each can be counted? Nominal
What variable is used to rank the attributes of some characteristic - such as happiness? Ordinal
What variable allows us to tell how far apart the attributes are on some scale, and the interval between each attribute is the same? Interval
What variable has a zero point? Ratio
What variables comprise numerical measures because they give real numbers with which to work? Interval and ratio
What are strategies for measuring constructs that involve adding scores from several different indicators in order to determine overall score? Composite measures
What measures multidimensional variables? Indices
What measures unidimensional variables? Scale
What kind of variable has a number of different dimensions? Multidimensional
What kind of variable runs along a scale with a simple expression of range of occurrence? Unidimensional
What kind of scale asks a respondent to rate a series of things independently, with each question scaled? Normative scale
What kind of scale asks the respondent to rate a series of things against one another, ordering them such that a particular rank can only be used once? Ipsative scale
What describes a measure that gives consistent results? Reliable
What describes the degree to which an instrument measures what it is believed to be measuring? Validity
Created by: silvrwood
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