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Gross Anatomy 2

Respiratory System

Point of attachment to forehead of the external nose root
Tip of the nose apex
Project from face and meeting in midline to form the dorsum nasi of the external nose lateral walls
Connects the root of the nose and the apex of the nose dorsum nasi
Nostrils of the nose are also called external(anterior) nares
Upper part of the dorsum nasi supported by nasal bones bridge
Shape of the external nose is determined by what? nasal bones, lateral nasal cartilages, greater alar cartilages, lesser alar cartilages and septal cartilage
Forms bridge of the nose nasal bones
Forms much of the dorsum and lateral aspect of the nose lateral nasal cartilages
Gives shape of the tip of the nose and has a lateral and medial crus which holds open the nares greater alar cartilages
Posterior to the greater alar cartilages lesser alar cartilages
Unpaired midline cartilage which helps to divide nasal cavity into 2 lateral halves septal cartilage
Nasal cavity is divided into two ____ by ____ nasal fossae; nasal septum
Nasal cavity extends from ____ to ____ external/anterior nares; choanae(internal/posterior nares)
Openings into the nasopharynx at posterior edge of hard palate and vomer choanae(internal/posterior nares)
Internal of the nasal cavity, this corresponds to the alae and has what? vestibule; sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hairs
Each nasal fossa contains floor, medial wall, roof and lateral wall
Floor of the nasal fossa hard palate(maxillae & palatine bones)
Medial wall of the nasal fossa septal cartilage, perpendicular plate of ethmoid, vomer, nasal crests of maxillae & palatine bones
Roof of the nasal fossa nasal bone, frontal bone, cribiform plate and body of sphenoid
Lateral wall of nasal fossa limen nasi, agger nasi, olfactory sulcus, conchae, sphenoehmoidal recess and meatuses
Ridge formed by the lower edge of the lateral nasal cartilage limen nasi
Separates the vestibule from the rest of the nasal fossa on lateral wall limen nasi
Area of transition of epithelial types on lateral wall of the nasal fossa limen nasi
Midway between the anterior end of middle concha and dorsum of nose (lateral wall) agger nasi
Site of an anterior ethmoid air cell (lateral wall) agger nasi
Slight groove above agger nasi olfactory sulcus - leads to the olfactory area on the roof of the nasal cavity
Usually 3 or 4 scroll-like elevations covered by mucuous membrane, what are they? conchae(turbinates); inferior, middle, superior and supreme
Largest scroll-like elevation on lateral wall, its a separate bone inferior concha
Which scroll-like elevations on the lateral wall are part of the ethmoid bone? middle concha, superior concha and supreme concha
Which scroll-like elevation is inconsistant, present in about 60% of cases? supreme concha
Between the superior (or supreme) concha and body of sphenoid sphenoethmoidal recess
Interval between later nasal wall and each of the overhanging conchae meatuses
Lateral to overhanging inferior concha inferior meatus
Inferior meatus receives what? ostium of the nasolacrimal duct (tears frome eyes into nose)
Middle meatus contains what? ethmoid bulla, uncinate process, semilunar hiatus, ethmoidal infundibulum and frontal recess
Marks the position of an ethmoid air cell. Ostia of the cell are on surface ethmoid bulla
Sharp mucosa covered ridge lying inferior and anterior to ethmoid bulla uncinate process
The narrow curved opening exiting the infundibulum. It is located between the uncinate process below and the bulla above semilunar hiatus
Deep curved passage lying deep to the semilunar hiatus ethmoidal infundibulum
Anterior-superior end of the ethmoidal infundibulum receives the what? ostium of the frontonasal duct(draining from the frontal sinus)
Ethmoidal infundibulum also receives the what just below the semilunar hiatus ostium of the maxillary sinus(floor of the infundibulum)
Anterior to semilunar hiatus and receives ostia of one or more ethmoid cells frontal recess
Meatus that receives ostia of the posterior ethmoid cells superior meatus
Main supplier of blood to the nose sphenopalatine artery
Minor blood supplier to the nose is from what? nasal brs. of superior labial a., ethmoidal brs. of ophthalmis a., & greater palatine br. of maxillary a
Epistaxis means what? nose bleed
4 paired paranasal sinuses Frontal, Ethmoid, Sphenoid and Maxillary
Paranasal sinuses are lined by what? respiratory mucosa
How does the frontal sinus drain? frontonasal duct & ethmoidal infundibulum into middle meatus
How does the ethmoid sinus drain? small ducts into middle and superior meatuses
How does the sphenoid sinus drain? drains into sphenoethmoidal recess
How does the maxillary sinus drain? infundibulum into middle meatus (sometimes directly into middle meatus
Nasopharynx extends from ____ to ____ internal nares (choanae); free edge of soft palate
Floor of the nasopharynx soft palate
Lateral walls of nasopharynx pharyngeal muscles, ostia of auditory tubes and torus tubarius
Cartilaginous lip of auditory tube into nasopharynx and on the posterior lip of an ostium torus tubarius
Roof of nasopharynx sphenoid bone and pharyngeal tonsils
Smooth muscular tube with 15-20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings Trachea
Trachea is from ____ to ____ lower border of cricoid; bronchi
Structures anterior to the trachea in the neck sternohyoid, sternothyroid, isthmus of thyroid, thyroidea ima artery(if present)
Isthmus of thyroid gland is located where from the trachea in front of 2nd and 3rd rings
Structures posterior to the trachea in the neck esophagus
Structures lateral to the trachea in the neck lobes of thyroid gland, carotid aa., recurrent laryngeal nn.
Structures anterior to the trachea in the thorax thymus remains, left brachiocephalic v., origin of brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid a., arch of aorta and thyroidea ima artery(if present)
Structures on the right side of the trachea in the thorax pleura, right vagus, right brachiocephalic v., SVC and root of azygos v.
Structures on the left side of the trachea in the thorax left recurrent laryngeal n., arch of aorta, left common carotid a., and left subclavian a.
Where does trachea bifurcate at? sternal angle or T4/5 disk level
Modified tracheal ring helping to support bifurcation carina
Primary bronchi enter lungs where at the hilus
Right primary bronchi is what compared to the left shorter, wider and more vertical
Potential space between parietal and visceral(pulmonary) pleura pleural cavity
Arch of the aorta pushes tracheal bifurcation slightly to ____(right/left) right (Arch of Aorta loops over the left primary bronchus)
Reflections of parietal pleura which provide for expansion of lungs during inspiration pleural recesses
Pleural recess that is circumferential(horizontal) in angle between thoracic wall and diaphragm costodiaphragmatic recess
Pleural recess that is vertical, posterior to sternum, between thoracic wall and mediastinum costomediastinal recess
Located between hilus and root of lung, represents reflection of mediastinal parietal pleura onto the lung pulmonary ligament
Superior part of lung that projects through thoracic inlet about 1 in. above clavicle apex of Lung
Parietal pleura extending over apex of lung cupula/cupola
Part of lung that lies on diaphragm base of lung
Right lung landmarks cardiac impression; grooves for SVC, rt. brachiocephalic v., rt. subclavian a., azygos v., esophagus., IVC, trachea; hilum & pulmonary ligament
Left lung landmarks cardiac impression with cardiac notch; grooves for arch of aorta, descending aorta, lt. subclavian a., lt brachiocephalic v., esophagus, trachea; hilum & pulmonary ligament
Lobes of the right lung superior, middle and inferior
Lobes of the left lung superier and inferior
Fissures of right lung oblique and horizontal
Fissures of left lung oblique
Anterioinferior part of the superior lobe of the left lung lingula
Lingula of left lung is homologue to what of the right lung middle lobe of the right lung
Collectively, the structures that pass through the hilus and what are these structures root of the lung; bronchi, vessels, nerves & lymphatics
Portion of a lung supplied with air from a tertiary bronchus & its subsequent branches bronchopulmonary segment
Respiratory diaphragm that arises from the xiphoid process & adjacent aponeurosis of transversus abdominis muscle sternal portion
Respiratory diaphragm from cartilage and bony surfaces of ribs 7-12 costal portion
Respiratory diaphragm arises from vertebral column as left and right crura and fascial thickenings lumbar portion
Crura are united superiorly by what? median arcuate ligament
Lies between the crura aortic hiatus
Fascial thickening of diaphragm over the quadratus lumborum lateral arcuate ligament
Fascial thickening of diaphragm over the psoas major medial arcuate ligament
Hiatus for IVC's vertebral level T8
Esophageal hiatus vertebal level T10
Aortic hiatus vertebral level T12
Besides IVC, what goes through the IVC hiatus terminal brs. of right phrenic nerve
Besides esophagus, what goes through the esophageal hiatus R. & L. vagus nn.
Besides abdominal aorta, what goes through the aoritc hiatus thoracic duct and sometimes the asygos vein
Where does the azygos vein pass through sometimes the aortic hiatus but mostly the right crus of the diaphragm
Created by: 1277880004