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CNS Exam 2

NWHSU T3

QuestionAnswer
What nucleus/ nuclei forms the paleostriatum? (UK2) Globus pallidos *
Pathology in which nucleus results in Parkinson's disease? (MASH) Substantia Nigra *
Name the descending tracts by which the vestibulocerebellum affects the extra ocular nuclei? (MASH) Medial Longitudinal fasciculus *
Name the descending tracts by which the vestibulocerebellum affects the Lower motor neurons of the lumbosacral spinal cord? (MASH) Lateral vestibulospinal tract* and reticulospinal tract*
Which of the motor disorders is characterized by increased muscle tone and decreased voluntary movements? (UK5) Parkinson's disease*
In general, the purkinji fibers of the cerebellar cortex terminates on _______ upon which they have an ______ influence. (MASH) Deep (fastigial) nuclei*;inhibitory*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Especially important in fine motor control. (f10-2b) pontoerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. The oldest part of the cerebellum (archicerebellum) (S10-8i) Vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Especially important in stereotyped movements (f10-2a) spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Most of its afferent come from the cerebral cortex via reticular nuclei (S11-5iv) Spinocerebellum*, vestibulocerebellum* and pontotocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. A lesion would likely result in nystagmus and truncal ataxia (S11-5vi) vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Associated with the fastigial nucleus (S11-5v) Spinocerebellum* and vestbulocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives afferents from the lateral cuneate nucleus (S11-5i) spinocerebellum ?/
A person has a vascular lesion which gives signs and symptoms of both basal nuclear and pontocerebellar dysfunction. Give the location of the lesion. (UK8) Anterior limb of internal capsule?/
A person complains of dizziness and deafness in the R ear. Where is the problem? (UK9) Right vestibulocochlear nerve*
A patient presents with an inability to smile on the R side.(f10-15ai)If the is accompanied by an inability to close the eyes tightly what is the location is most likely? Right Peripheral facial nerve *
A patient presents with an inability to smile on the Right side. (f10-15aii) What other deficits may be present? Decreased salivation; decreased taste sensation *
A patient presents with an inability to smile on the Right side. (f10-15bi) If the ability to close the eye is normal what is the location is most likely? left Lateral Cerebral cortex *
A patient presents with an inability to smile on the Right side. (f10-15biii) is the ability to close eye is normal which of the following genereal senory deficits would be expected? Decreased pain over the right check *
A patient presents with an inability to smile on the Right side. (f10-15biii) Ability to close eye is normal what other deficits would be expected? Weakness of the right tongue; Receptive aphasia *
What sensory epithelium responds to rotary movements of the head? (UK11) Crista ampullaris*
Ganglion cell axons terminates on: ________ in the pathway for vision (f10-11c) Lateral Geniculate *
Ganglion cell axons terminates on: _______ in the pathway for pupillary dilation (S11-16b) hypothalamus*
Ganglion cell axons terminates on: _____ in the pathway for puppillary constriction (f10-11a) Superior collicolus*
A person has visual blindness lateral aspects of both eyes. Where is the visual pathway most likely interrutpted? (MASH) Optic Chiasm *
A person has visual blindness lateral aspects of both eyes. What is a likely cause of the interruption? (UK13b) Pituitary gland tumor*
A person has visual blindness in the right eye. What is the most likely location of the problem? (MASH) Right eye. Most come problem for blindness not in the CNS.*
In general, information from the macula projects to the _______ portion of area 17. (MASH) Posterior 1/3 of the visual cortex*
Which 2 cell layers separate in a detached retina? (MASH) Photoreceptive and pigment cell layers *
Which auditory nucleus is required to discern distance and directions? (S11-12) Superior olivary nucleus *
Which is the basis of organization in areas 41 and 42? (MASH) tonotropic (based on frequency)*
Name the nuclei described: (f10-14i) parasympathetic to the stomach dorsal motor nucleus *
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17xiii) Receives chemoreceptor and barreceptor afferents Solitarius, inferior part/caudal *
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17vi) receives afferents from the ipsilateral lateral gaze center Abducens *
Name the nuclei described: (f10-14iv) motor to skeletal muscles of the larynx ambiguus *
Name the nuclei described: (UK19e) innervates muscles derived from arch II Facial motor nucleus *
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17vii) parasympathetic to the heart ambiguus*
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17vii) receives afferents from the tongue hypoglossal* and solitarious, superior part/rostral*
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17ii) efferent fibers terminate on the pterygopalatine ganglion superior salivatory/ larcrimal *
Name the nuclei described: (f10-14viii) terminates on the inferior colliculus cochlear nucleu, dorsal and ventral *
Name the nuclei described: (f10-14x) receives fibers from pretectal nuclei in the light response Edinger- Westphal *
Name the nuclei described: (f10-14ix) Fibers terminate on the ventral posterior medial nucleus of the thalamus. solitarius, superior part. *
Name the nuclei described: (S11-17x) efferent fibers join the glossopharyngeal nerve. inferior salivatory* and ambiguus*
Which 2 descending motor tracts terminating only in the cervical cord are important for coordination of head and eye position? (S11-2) Tectospinal Tract*; Medial Vestibulospinal Tract*
A person is unable to smile on the left side and unable to close the left eye tightly. Which location is the most likely side of a lesion? (S11-3i) Left facial nerve *
A person is unable to smile on the left side and unable to close the left eye tightly. Which deficits could also likely be present? (S11-3ii) decreased salivation and decreased taste sensation *
A person is unable to smile on the left side but can close the eyes tightly. Which location is the most likely site of a lesion? (S11-4i) Right cerebral cortex.*
A person is unable to smile on the left side but can close the eyes tightly. Which deficits could also likely be present? (S11-4ii) weakness in the tongue* and receptive aphasia *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Affects lower motor via the medial longitudinal fasciculus. (S11-5ii) vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Efferent fibers decussate in the superior cerebellar peduncle (S11-5iii) spinocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Disturbances may result in speech problem. (S11-5vii) Pontocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. functions may be affected by a lesion in the internal capsule. (S11-5viii) Spinocerebellum*; Pontocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Includes the interposed nuclei (globose and emboliform) (S11-5ix) Spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Roughly equivalent to the archicerebellum (S11-5x) Vestibulocerebellum *
Give the afferent to the Right dentate nucleus. excitatory stimuli from _______ via the inferior cerebellar peduncle (S11-6a) Inferior olivary* and arcuate*
Give the afferent to the Right dentate nucleus. Ecitatory stimuli from _____ via the middle cerebellar peduncle (S11-6b) Pontine Nuclei *
Give the afferent to the Right dentate nucleus. Inhibitory stimuli from _______ cells located in the ______ (S11-6c) Right purinkji cells*; Pontocerebellum*
Name the motor conditions described. Hypokinetic disease characterized by slow movements, increase in muscle tone, loss of facial expression, delayed initiation, and pill-rolling tremor. (S11-7a) Parkinson's disease*
Name the motor conditions described. Involuntary movements of the tongue and face induces by antipsychotic drugs. (S11-7b) Tardive dyskinesia*
Name the motor conditions described. Hyperkinentic autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by wide spread destruction of the basal nuclei and the cerebrum. (S11-7c) Huntington's chorea*
Name the motor conditions described. May develop following rheumatic fever. (S11-7d) Syndenham's Chorea*
Which sensory epithelium sense linear acceleration and deceleration? (S11-8) Saccule* and Utricle*
The vestibular nuclei project to the ________ nucleus of the thalamus in the pathway for conscious positional awareness. (S11-9) VPM nucleus of the thalamus *
In the basic auditory pathway, the right inferior colliculus receives afferents from __________ and send information to ________ (S11-10) Bilateral dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus* ;Right medial geniculate *
Receptive aphasia may result from an occlusion in the ______ artery (include side) (S11-11) Left Middle Cerebral artery (think language)*
The left temporal loop fibers are interrupted. What in the visual field is blinded. (S11-15) The upper right quadrant*
The ganglion axon from the retina terminates on: _________ in the pathway for the consensual pupillary light response (S11-16a) Superior collicolus *
The ganglon axon from the retina terminates on: _______ in the pathway for conscious visual awareness (S11-16c) Lateral geniculate *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents from pretectal (S11-17i) Edinger-Westphal *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Motor to muscles derived from Arches III-VI (S11-17iii) Ambiguus*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives afferents from the hypothalamus (S11-17iv) Edinger Westphal*, Superior Salivatory/Lacrimal*, Inferior Salivatory*, Dorsal Motor nucleus of X, Nucleus Ambiguus*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Supplied by the anterior spinal artery (S11-17v) Dorsal motor nucleus of 10*; hypoglossal*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Fibers pass posterior to abducens nucleus (S11-17ix) Facial motor*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Located at the same brainstem level as the inferior colliculus (S11-17xi) Trochlear*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Efferent to bilateral muscles (S11-17xii) Oculomotor Nucleus *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives afferents from nucleus dorsalis (f10-2c) Spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Affects the lower motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract (f10-2f) Spinocerebellum * and Pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives afferents directly from the maculae. (f10-2g) Vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Granules cells of the cortex recieves mossy fibers (f10-2h) Vestibulocerebellum*; spinocerebellum*; pontocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Deep nuclei recieve inhibitory stimuli from the purkinje cells (f10-2i) Vestibulocerebellum* spinocerebellum* and pontocerebellum *
Name the motor conditions described. Characterized by truncal ataxia and nystagmus (f10-3b) Flocculonodular syndrome *
Name the motor conditions described. Violent involuntary flailing movements resulting from a lesion in the contralateral subthalamic nucleus (f10-3d) Hemiballismus *
What nucleus lies adjacent to the anterior limb of the internal capsule? (f10-4) Globus Pallidus* and Cuadate *
The left lateral leminscus is formed from fiber originating on _________ nuclei (f10-5) right and left dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei *
Deafness in the right ear is most likely caused by a problem located ___________ (f10-6) Peripheral right ear*
name the nuclei described. Receives afferents from the fastigial nucleus (f10-14iii) Vestibular*
Decresead transmitter substance in neurons of the _______ nucleus results in Parkinson's diseasse. (S10-4) Substantia Nigra *
Which characteristic of disturbances in the vestibular system? (S10-7) Truncal ataxia*, Nystagmus*, and Nausea*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Afferent include cunecerebellar fibers (S10-8ii) Spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Efferent terminate on the red nucleus (S10-8iii) Spinocerebellum* and Pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Deep nucleus receives inhibitory afferents from the cortex (S10-8iv) Vestibulocerebellum*, spinocerebellum*, pontocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Afferent relay vast amounts of information from the contralateral cerebral cortex (S10-8v) pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Affects the lower motor neurons via the pontine and medullary reticulospinal tracts (S10-8vii) Vestibulocerebellum* and Spinocerebellum *
In the basic auditory pathway, the right inferior colliculus projects to the _______ (S10-9) Right medial geniculate *
Blindness int he left eye is most likely due to a lesion located ______ (S10-14) in the left eye/ optic nerve of left eye*
Which is true of the fovea centralis? is in the center of the optic disc, is the area of highest visual acuity, contains only cones, many of it photoreceptors converge on the one bipolar neuron (S10-16) Contains only cones*; area of highest visual acuity*
The fields which represent the retinal information going to the left area 17 is_____ (S10-17) left side of the retinal field *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the ileum (S10-19ii) dorsal motor nucleus*
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Sensory nuclei supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (S10-19iv) nucleus of the spinotrigeminal tract *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Parasympathetic fibers join the glossopharyngeal. (S10-19vi) inferior salvatory *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. motor to skeletal muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and esophagus (S10-19vii) ambiguus *
Name the cranial nerve nuclei described. Receives taste afferents (S10-19x) solitarius superior part. *
The neostriatum is composed of ________. (MASH) Caudate*, Putamen *
Paleostriatum receives most afferent from ________ and projects predominately to ________ (MASH) Neostriatum*; Thalamus-VA and VL*
Substantia nigra affect the LMNs through its connections with _______ (MASH) reciprocal connections with neostriatum and paleostriatum *
Decreased dopamine in neurons of substantia nigra results in _______. into which of the two categories of basal nuclear lesions does the fall? (MASH) Over excitation*; Hypokenesia*/ hypertonia*
Disorders of the basal nuclei usually fall into one of two categories. What are the categories? (MASH) Hypotonic Disorders* and Hpyerkinetic*
Disorders of the basal nuclei usually fall into one of two categories. Into which category does Parkinson's fall? (MASH) Hypokinetic *
Choreiform movements would suggests a lesion in the ______. What other abnormality would likely accompany the chorea? (MASH) Basal nuclei*; Athetosis*, ballism*, abnormal speech*
Consider the purkinje cells of the cerebellum. Their dendrites synapse with axons of the ______ cells and their axons synapse with _____ where they have an ______ influence. (MASH) Climbing cells*; Deep nuclei*; Inhibitory*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described: Receive climbing fibers. (MASH) Pontocerebellum* Spinocerebellum* Vestibulocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described: Receive afferents from the dorsal spinocerebellar tract. (MASH) Spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described: Projects to vestibular nuclei. (MASH) Vestibulocerebellum* and spinocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described: Integrates general sensory and vestibular information to influence muscle tone and coordination. (MASH) Vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described: Received afferent from the mesencephalic nucleus. (MASH) Spinocerebellum *
In the basic auditory pathway, the right dorsal cochlear nucleus projects to ______. there ascending fiber form the_____. (MASH) R/L inferior colliculus*; R/L lateral lamniscus *
In the basic auditory pathway, the right medial geniculate receives afferents from the ______. (MASH) Right inferior colliculus *
In the basic auditory pathway, the right lateral lemniscus carries fibers from the ________ nucleus. (MASH) R/L dorsal and ventral cochlear*
Which accessory auditory nucleus projects to the organ of corti? (MASH) Superior olive *
Receptive aphasia is likely to result from a lesion in the area _______ on the ______ side. (MASH) 22- auditory association fiber*; left *
Which rentinal fields project to the left lateral geniculate? (MASH) Left side of both circles *
Information from the maculae is represented on the _____ portion of the lateral geniculate and the _______ portion of area 17. (MASH) Posterior*; Posterior 1/3*
Expansion of a tumor of the pituitary may compromise the visual pathway. What are the likely areas of visual blindness? (MASH) Tunnel vision*, left and right side of the two cicles*
Expansion of a tumor of the pituitary may compromise the visual pathway. Is the papillary light response normal? if not describe. (MASH) Yes the Pupillary response to light is normal *
What is important about the lamellae of the outer segments of photoreceptor cells? (MASH) Contains rhodopsin pigment that responds to light *
Bipolar neurons of the retina receive information from the _____ and project to the ______. (MASH) Rods and a few cones (photorecptor cells)*; ganglion cells*
What visual decficits would likely result from interruption of the left parietal geniculocalcarine fibers? (MASH) Upper right quad of both left and right eye*
In general, the deep central nuclei of the cerebellum receive excitatory stimulation from ______ and inhibitory stimulation from _____. (MASH) Mossy and Climbing fibers from the brainstem*; Purkinji*
Fibers of the lateral lemniscus terminate on the _______ (MASH) Inferior colliculus *
High frequency sounds cause maximal vibration of the ______ portion of the basilar memebrane (MASH) Basal *
Which area of the basilar memebrane vibrates maximally to low frequency sounds? (MASH) Apical *
Ganglion cell of the retinal terminate on the: _____ to affect circadian rhythms. (MASH) Hypothalamus *
Gnaglion cells of the retinal terminate on the: _____ for endocrine response to light (MASH) Hypothalamus *
Give two reasons why the fovea centralis is the area of highest visual acuity? (MASH) Only cones with no vessel*; no convergence*
The left macular fields of both eyes are represented on the ______ cerebral cortex. (MASH) Left posterior calcarine gyrus *
Which reticular nuclei are required for conjugate eye movements? (MASH) Gaze centers *
Stimulation of area 8 of the left side will cause the eyes to move _______. (MASH) Right *
The posterior portion of the left lateral geniculate projects to the ______. (MASH) Posterior portion of area 17*
Describe the problem resulting from destruction of the left auditory association cortex. (MASH) Receptive aphasia - language is heard, but can't be interpreted.*
Via which descendinding motor tract does pontocerebellum affect the LMNs. (MASH) Rubrospinal* and Corticospinal* and Corticobulbar*
List the afferents to the right pontocerebellum? (MASH) Left Pontine nuclei*; Left inferior olive*; Left arcuate*
Name the afferents to the left dentate nucleus. (MASH) Right arcuate*; right inferior olive*; left pontocerebellar cortex (purkinji fibers)*; right pontine nuclei*
List the afferents to the left fastigial nucleus: From the brainstem (MASH) LEft Vestibular nuclei*
List the afferents to the left fastigial nucleus: from outside the CNS (MASH) lEft Vestibular apparatus *
List the afferents to the left fastigial nucleus: from with in the cerebellum (MASH) Purkinji from left vestibulocerebellar cortex *
A person is unable to move any of the muscles of facial expression of the entire right side of the face. Where is the lesion? (MASH) Damage to the right facial nerve *
A person is unable to move any of the muscles of facial expression of the entire right side of the face. What other deficits may accompany the paralysis? (MASH) Left lower facial muscles would be affected and loss of the taste to the right anterior 2/3 of tongue
Explain how a brainstem lesion could result in an imcomplete Horner's syndrome? (MASH) Interruption of fibers descending from hypothalamus to sympathetic fibers descending to the IML of the thoracolumbar cord.*
The vestibular nuclei project to the: ______ via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (MASH) Fastigial nucleus *
The vestibular nuclei project to the: ________ via the medial longitudinal fasciculus. (MASH) Nuclei of CN abducens(6)*, Trochlear (4)*, occulomotor (3)*
Vestibular nuclei receive afferents from _____ via the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (MASH) Fastigial*
Vestibular nuclei receive afferents from _____ via the medial longitudinal fasciculus. (MASH) Occulomotor Cn3*, Trochlear Cn 4*, and Abducens Cn 6*
Vestibular nuclei receive afferents from _____ via the vestibular nerve (be very specific) (MASH) Maculae - crista ampullaris ?/
In general the right side of the spinocerebellum receives input from the _____ (R or L) side of the body and controls muscles on the ______ (R or L) side of the body. (MASH) Right*; Right *
(True or False) right sided hemiballismus suggests a lesion in the left subthalamic nucleus. (MASH) True*
Inactivation of the ARAS nuclei in the midbrain would result in ______. (MASH) Unconsciousness (coma)*
In the ascending reticular activating sustem, what are the two major sources of input to the reticular nuclei? (MASH) General Sensation* and Cerebral cortex*
The sensory epithelium of the semicircular canal is called what? (MASH) Crista ampullaris *
In the basic audiotory pathway, neurons of the left dorsal and ventral nuclei project to what? (MASH) Inferior colliculus - bilaterally*
The collateral auditory nucleus where information from both sides is first compared and contrasted is called _______ (MASH) Superior olivary nucleus *
What is located within the laminae of the rod outer segment? (MASH) Rhodopsin *
The axon on what neuron forms the optic nerve? (MASH) Gnaglion cells*
The left retinal field projects to _____ (nucleus of the thalamus) and then projects to ______ (area of the cortex)? (MASH) Left lateral geniculate*; Area 17 on the left*
What lesion would account for bitemporal blindness? (MASH) Lesion in the optic chiasma *
A person has complete interruption of the right optic tract. What visual defects would be expected? (MASH) Loss of left visual fields both eyes*
A person has complete interruption of the right optic tract. would pupillary light responses be normal or abnormal? why? (MASH) Normal becuase there is a lot of decussation in the superior colliculus *
The superior colliculus receives fibers from: which coritcal area for voluntary control of eye movements? (MASH) Area 8*
The superior colliculus receives fibers from: where for pupillary responses to light? (MASH) the left S.C. would receive light from the left retinal field bilateral and the right would receive from the right retinal fields bilaterally *
The superior colliculus receives fibers from: which cortical areas for visual fixation? (MASH) Area 17 *and Areas 18 and 19 *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the right sphincter pupilla. (MASH) Edinger-Westphal *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Motor to the right superior rectus. (MASH) Left Occulomotor nucleus *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Motor to the right lateral rectus. (MASH) Right abducens nucleus *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Receives primary taste fibers. (MASH) Rostral nucleus solitarius *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Project to the spinal cord as the lateral vestibulospinal tract. (MASH) Lateral vestibular nuclei *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Parasympathetic to the small intestine. (MASH) Dorsal motor nucleus of CN X *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Receives gustatory afferents of the facial nerve. (MASH) Rostral Nucleus solitarius *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. para sympathetic fibers join the vagus nerve. (MASH) Nucleus Ambiguous *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. innervateds the left medical rectus muscle (MASH) Left oculomotor nucleus *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Ganglion cells of the retina project to ____ (MASH) Lateral geniculate bodies with collaterals to hypothalamus and superior colliculus *
Name the brainstem nuclei described. Ascending fiber in the right lateral lemniscus have their NCBs (MASH) ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei*
The superior oblique muscle is innervate by fibers from which nucleus? (MASH) Contralateral trochlear nucleus *
The nuclei of CNs 3, 4, 6 all project to each other. There comprise what specific white structure? (MASH) Medial longitudinal fasciciulus*
In the pathway concerning the pupillary light reflex, the right pretectal nucleus projects to where? (MASH) Edinger-Westphal nucleus on both sides using the Posterior Commissure between pretectal*
Through which descending motor tract does the spinocerebellum indirectly influnce the lower motor neurons? (MASH) Rubrospinal tract* and corticospinal tract*
(True or False) As a result of conformational change in the visual pigmentation, the plasma membrane of the photorecptive cell depolarizes. (MASH) False hyperpolarizes *
(True or False) the left visual field projects to the right lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus. (MASH) True*
(True or False) the destination of most afferents from the neostriatum is the paleostiatum. (MASH) True*
(True or False) the globus pallidus connects with the subthalamic nucleus. (MASH) true*
(True or False) Substania nigra projects to the neostriatum where dopamine is released. (MASH) true *
(True or False) The paleostriatum is located in the diencephalon and has reciprocal connections with the globus pallidus true *
(True or False) the red nucleus contains lower motor neurons. (MASH) false?/
(True or False) The accessory nucleus contains lower motor neurons. (MASH) true?/
(True or False) all motor nuclei of CNs receive ipsilateral corticobulbar fibers false- facial motor receives contralateral corticobulbar fibers*
(True or False) The nasal visual fields are spared in a retro-chiasmal lesion. true*
(True or False) Ptosis with pupillary dilation results from a CN 2 lesion false- a sympathetic lesion or may be seen in anydrosis *
(True or False) The medial and lateral vestibulospinal tacts extend only into the cervical cord. false - all levels of the cord*
Which descending motor tract generally functions to facilitate flexors and inhibits extensors? (MASH) rubrospinal*
Give the major function of the superior olivary nucleus (MASH) To sense distance and direction a sound is coming*
Mossy fibers are afferents to the cerebellar cortex which synapses on what cell and in which areas of the cortex? (MASH) Granular cells*; granule cell layer*
trancal ataxia and nystagmus suggest a lesion where? (MASH) Flocculonodular lobe *
which nucleus is located in the wall of the lateral ventricle? (MASH) Caudate nucleus *
In the midbrain the corticospinal fibers are located where? (MASH) Basis pedunculi - middle 1/3?/
The rostral portion of the nucleus solitarius is involved in ______ pathway and receives affferents via ______ cranial nerves. (MASH) Teste*; 7*,9*,10*
The nucleus ambiguous is located. ______ (MASH) Superior open medulla*
The inferior salivatory nucleus is the site of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers which are motor to what? (MASH) Parotid/ salivary gland*, CN 9*
Which descending motor tract generally functions to facilitate extensors and inhibit flexors? (MASH) Lateral Vestibulospinal tract *
In general, corticobulbar fibers from the left cortex influence lower motor neurons located where? (MASH) The brainstem, bilaterally *
In general , the posterior nuclei of the hypothalamus stimulate which division of the ANS? (MASH) Parasympathetics ?/
Give three major sources of afferents to the neostriatum? (MASH) Wide areas of the cortex*, substantia nigra*, thalamus*
The deep cerebellar nucleus associated with the pontocerebellum is the _____ nucleus (MASH) dentate *
What is the most likely result of a destractive lesion in area 22? (MASH) receptive aphasia *
Name the three specific cortical areas from which the majority of the corticospinal and cortcobulbar fibers originate. (MASH) Areas 312,4,6*
Most climbing fibers have their nerve cell bodies in which nucleus? (MASH) Inferior olivary nucleus *
In general, descending motor fibers terminate where in the spinal cord? (MASH) Lamina 7 and 8 (dorsal horn)*; Lamina 9 (ventral horn)*
Corticobulbar fibers are located in which part of the internal capsule?(MASH) Genu*
Violent, spontaneous, flailing movemnts of the right extremities is suggestive of a lesion in which nucleus? (MASH) Left subthalamic nucleus *
General sensation from the right side of the body is relayed to which side of the cerebellum? Right *
The right side of the cerebellum affects muscles on which side? Right *
The right dentate nucleus projects where? (MASH) Left red nucleus *
Other then corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, the right basis(?) peduncles contains fibers from the cortex which terminates where? (MASH) in the pons?/
There is destructive lesion in the right temporal lobe which destroys the temporal geniculocalcarine fibers. What portion of the visual field would be blind? (MASH) The upper left quadrant *
When the light is shone into the right eye neither pupil responds. but when it is shone into the left eye both pupils constrict. Where is the problem? (MASH) Optic nerve lesion in the right eye before decussation *
Fibers from the carotid body and carotid sinus terminate where? (MASH) Caudal part of the nucleus solitarius *
Via which decending motor pathways does the vestibulocerebellum affect the lower motor neurons of the spinal cord? (MASH) Rubrospinal* and Corticospinal*
Stimulation of the right area 8 (as in a seizure) would result in what? (MASH) Deviation of the eyes to the left*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Right organ of corti? (MASH) loss of ability to compare and determine distance and direction*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Right primary auditory cortex (MASH) decrease in the hearing levels of both ears*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Abducens nucleus (MASH) inability to abduct eye on the same side*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: right trigeminal nucleus (MASH) loss of sensation to face and motor functions to muscles of mastication on right side*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Subthalamsu (MASH) contralateral hemiballismus *
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Left frontal eye field (MASH) deviation of the eyes to the right*
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: Right superior temporal gyrus (MASH) decreased hearing in both ears ?/
What signs or symptoms would be expected with a lesion in: left superior temporal gyrus (MASH) Receptive aphasia *
In gerenal, the lower motor nuclei of CNs receive afferents equally bilaterally from the cortex. Give 2 exceptions. (MASH) Lower 1/2 of CN7 and Hypoglossal (mostly contralateral)*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Dentate nucleus (MASH) Pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. importnat in coordinating large motor activities such as walking (MASH) Spinoccerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. the largest portionin the human cerebellum (MASH) pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. has a significant effect on the primary motor cortex (MASH) pontocerebellum* and spinocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives general sensory date from the body and head (MASH) Spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Termination of the spinocerebellar tracts (MASH) spinocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives afferents from wide areas of the cerebral cortex. (MASH) pontocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. most of the neocerebellum (MASH) Pontocerebellum*
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Receives information from the vestibular appartus (MASH) vestibulocerebellum *
Name the functional lobe of the cerebellum described. Is composed mostly of the flocculonodular lobe. (MASH) Vestibulocerebellum *
The posterior part of the left visual cortex recieves information from what? (MASH) upper and lower left macular fields. *
The upper right retinal field of the both eyes project to where? (MASH) right lateral geniculate on the medial portion*
Which deep cerebellar nucleus projects (indirectly via the red nucleus and thalamus) to the motor and premotor areas of the cerebral cortex? (MASH) Globose/Emboliform*
Most anterior corticospinal fibers terminate where? (MASH) Laminae 7,8,9*
The red nucleus receives cerebellar afferents from what 2 stracutures? (MASH) Cereral cortex* and Cerebellum*
First order of pain fibers from the right side of the head terminates where? (MASH) Right nucleus of spinotrigeminal tract. ?/
What relay information fromthe red nucleus, corticospinal, and corticobulbar tracts to the pontocerebellum? (MASH) inferior olivary nucleus ?/
What descending ipsilateral motor pathway is located inthe ventral funiculus of the spinal cord and orginates in the central reticular nuclei? (MASH) Reticulospinal ?/
The arcuate nucleus is located in the _____, recieves information from _______ and projects to _____ (MASH) Pyramids*; Corticospinal*; pontine nuclei*
The nerve cell body of the first order proprioceptive fiber from the head is located where? (MASH) Mesencephalic *
the expanded terminus of the mossy fiber is called the _______ and synapses with dendrites of _____ cells (MASH) Glomerulus*; Granule*
What fibers are located in the lateral basis pendunculi? (MASH) Parietemporal pontine ?/
In general, all afferents to the cerebellum terminate where? (MASH) cortex and deep nucleaus ?/
Afferents from the inferior olivary nucleus are called ______, while most other afferent are called_______. (MASH) Climbing fibers; Mossy fibers?/
Corticobulbar fibers orginating on the right cortex project to motor neurons where and on what side? (MASH) In the cervical region bilaterally*
Pressure in the optic nerve will first affect what?(MASH) Artery and venous return of the retina *
What is the name given to the mass of decussating fibers in the auditory pathway? (MASH) Trapezoid body *
Where is the cortex for conscious vestibular awareness? Primary motor cortex, areas 4&6*
Give two major sources of afferents to the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus? (MASH) Paleostriatum* and Pontocerebellum*
What descending motor tract originates in the medial vestibular nucleus and is important in the maintenance of equilibrium? (MASH) Medial vestibulospinal tract *
The temproal loop fibers carry information from which retinal fields? (MASH) Bilateral inferior temporal retinal field*
The gaze centers coordinate what type of eye movements? (MASH) Conjugate movement *
Hemiballismus on the right results from a lesion where? (MASH) Lest subthalamic nucleus *
In gereneal, dyskinesia and hypotonia would be characteristic of lesion where? (MASH) Basal nuclei *
When are the sensory hair cells of the macula excited? (MASH) When bent forward towards cilium *
The betz/ giant pyramidal cell is located in the ______ (MASH) Motor precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. ?/
Area 17 receives afferents from _____. (MASH) Lateral geniculate (optc nerve, visual)*
What condition is suggested by papilledema? (not a tumor) (MASH) Congestion of the retinal vein, bulging forward of the disk *
The fibers contributing to the consensual light reflex decussate in the ____. (MASH) Posterior commissure*
What sulcus is the landmark for the primary visual cortex? (MASH) Calerine sulcus *
In most people which hemisphere is usually dominant for language? (MASH) left *
Created by: missymak19