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Digestive System

Anat Test 2

Accessory glands of the digestive system salivary glands, liver and pancreas
Walls of the intestine (inner to outer) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa or adventita
Intrinsic skeletal muscles do what and are what? modify shape of tongue; superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, vertical
Extrinsic skeletal muscles of the tongue genioglossus, styloglossus, hyoglossus, chondroglossus, palatoglossus
genioglossus (O, I, A) O - superior genial tubercle(sup. mental spine) I - hyoid bone and entire length of tongue A - Ant. fibers: retract Post. fibers: protract and depress
styloglossus (O, I, A) O - stylohyoid process I - side of tongue(lat to hyoglossus) A - retracts and elevates tongue
hyoglossus (O, I, A) O - hyoid bone I - side of tongue(med. to styloglossus) A - depresses tongue
Which extrinsic tongue muscle is considered a subdivsion of hyoglossus and has a similar action? chondroglossus
Which extrinsic tongue muscles is not always present? chondroglossus
chondroglossus (O, I) O - hyoid bone I - side of tongue deep to hyoglossus
Which extrinsic tongue muscle is more closely associated with muscles of the soft palate? palatoglossus
Innervation of all the muscles(intrinsic and extrinsic) of the tongue except which one? hypoglossal nerve(CN 12); palatoglossus
Innervation of the palatoglossus pharyngeal plexus(cranial 11 via 10)
3 portions of the pharynx nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx
Portion of the pharynx that is part of the respiratory system nasopharynx
Portion of the pharynx that is above the soft palate nasopharynx
Portion of the pharynx between the lower edge of soft palate to level of hyoid oropharynx
Portion of the pharynx from hyoid to lower border of cricoid cartilage(C6) laryngopharynx
Aperture by which the oral cavity communicates with the pharynx Fauces
Borders of the Fauces roof = soft palate & uvula floor = dorsum of the tongue laterally = palatoglossal arches, palatopharyngeal arches and palatine tonsils
Depressions just anterior to upper edge of epiglottis Valleculae
palatoglossal muscle(O, I, A, N) O - palatine aponeurosis of soft palate I - side of posterior tongue A - pulls root of tongue upward and backward N - pharyngeal plexus(11 via 10)
The palatoglossal arches are formed by what? palatoglossal muscles being covered in mucosa
Musculus Uvulae Muscle(O, I, A, N) O - palatine aponeurosis of soft palate I - into uvula A - assists in closing nasopharynx during swallowing N - pharyngeal plexus
Two muscles of the oropharynx Palatoglossal Muscles and Musculus Uvulae Muscle
Spinal level that the thyroid cartilage and hyoid bone are at C4 & C5; C3
Purpose of the epiglottis helps guard inlet to larynx; diverts food through piriform recesses
Muscle categories of the pharynx and their general actions outer circular - contracts pharynx in swallowing inner longitudinal - elevates larynx and pharynx in swallowing
Outer circular muscles of the pharynx superior constrictor, middle constrictor and inferior constrictor
Inner longitudinal muscles of the pharynx palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus and stylopharyngeus
superior constrictor(location and innervation) base of skull and mandible to posterior median raphe; pharyngeal plexus(9 & 10)
middle constrictor(location and innervation) horns of hyoid to posterior median raphe; pharyngeal plexus(9 & 10)
inferior constrictor(location and innervation) laryngeal cartilages to posterior median raphe; pharyngeal plexus(9 & 10)
palatopharyngeus(location and innervation) soft palate to thyroid cartilage; pharyngeal plexus(11 via 10)
salpingopharyngeus(location and innervation) auditory tube to palatopharyngeus; pharyngeal plexus
stylopharyngeus(location and innervation) styloid process to thyroid cartilage; CN 12
Esophagus is posterior to ____ & ____. trachea; left atrium of heart
Esophagus extends from where to where pharynx to stomach
4 constrictions of the esophagus before it joins the stomach behind the cricoid cartilage, where arch of aorta crosses, crossing of left primary bronchus and esophageal hiatus of diaphragm
Average capacity, shape and position of the stomach. About 1 liter; J shaped; in epigastric and left hypochondriac regions of abdomen; supported by peritoneum(lesser omentum)
Indefinite area adjacent to the cardiac orifice of the stomach cardia
Part above esophageal opening of the stomach fundus
Cardiac notch is at the junction with the what? esophagus
Pylorus next to the body of the stomach pyloric antrum
Pylorus that is more constricted and is surrounded by a pyloric orifice(opening into duodenum) pyloric canal
Sphincter that guards opening of esophagus into stomach, what type of sphincter is this? cardiac sphincter; physiological sphincter
Sphincter that guards opening of pylorus into duodenum, what type of sphincter is this? pyloric sphincter; anatomical sphincter
Difference between an anatomical sphincter and physiological sphincter? Anatomical sphincter has an increased thickness of smooth muscle compared to the physiological sphincter
Stomach muscular coats: inner: middle: outer: inner: oblique smooth muscle middle: circular smooth muscle outer: longitudinal smooth muscle
What part or parts of the small intestine are retroperitoneal? Why? Duodenum; It travels around the head of the pancreas
Portion of the duodenum that is from pylorus to superior duodenal flexure Superior Portion
What vessel passes posteriorly to the superior portion of the duodenum? gastroduodenal artery
Portion of the duodenum that is from the superior duodenal flexure to the inferior duodenal flexure Descending Portion
What forms the hepatopancreatic ampulla(of Vater)? common bile duct and major/chief pancreatic duct
What opens into the duodenum via the major duodenal papilla? What portion of the duodenum? hepatopancreatic ampulla(of Vater); descending portion
The terminal ends of both ducts and the ampulla are surrounded by circular smooth muscle fibers called what? sphincter of Oddi(Sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla)
Explain the location of the horizontal portion of the duodenum From the inferior duodenal flexure to the ascending portion of the duodenum(just to left edge of aorta)
What passes anteriorly to the horizontal portion of the duodenum? superior mesenteric artery and vein
Explain the ascending portion of the duodenum begins on left edge of aorta and ascends to join the jejunum at the duodenojejunal flexure
The duodenojejunal flexure is held in place by what? This also has attachments to what? ligament of Treitz(suspensory ligament of the duodenum; celiac trunk and right crus of the diaphragm
The jejunum has what compared to the ilium wider lumen, thicker walls, larger villi, more vascularity, more and larger plicae circulares, longer, larger and less numerous vasa recta and less complex arterial arcades
Peyer's patches are present where? Ileum
What and where are both ileum and jejunum attached? Mesentary attaches them both to the posterior abdominal wall
4 parts of the large intestine cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal
Whats at the junction of the ileum and cecum? ileocecal valve
Region below the ileocecal valve cecum
What bears the vermiform appendix? cecum
Ascending colon is from ____ to ____ cecum to right colic(hepatic) flexure
Ascending colon is retroperitoneal or peritoneal retroperitoneal
Transverse colon is from ____ to ____ right colic(hepatic) flexure to left colic(splenic) flexure
The transverse colon is suspended by a mesentery called what? transverse mesocolon
Descending colon is retroperitonial or peritoneal retroperitoneal
The descending colon is from ____ to ____ left colic(splenic) flexure to the sigmoid colon
Sigmoid colon is suspended by a mesentery called what? sigmoid mesocolon
The sigmoid colon is from ____ to ____ pelvic brim to rectum(at level of S3)
Major structures common to all parts of colon taeniae coli, haustrae coli(haustra), semilunar folds and appendices epeploicae
3 bands of outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer in the colon taeniae coli
Sacculations of the colon haustrae coli(haustra)
Edges of colon between haustra which project into lumen semilunar folds
Small fat-filled pouches of peritoneum hanging from the free surface of colon appendices epiploicae
What part of the rectum is retroperitoneal? upper part
Rectum begins where and ends where? rectosigmoid junction(S3); anal canal(pelvic diaphragm)
What are the 3 transverse rectal folds that project into rectal lumen called? Valves of Houston
Begins at upper surface of pelvic diaphragm and ends at anus Anatomical Anal Canal
Begins at pectinate line and ends at the anus Clinical/surgical Anal Canal
Muscles of the anal canal sphincter ani internus and sphincter ani externus
Sphincter ani internus is an involuntary or voluntary muscle, why? involuntary muscle b/c it consists of smooth muscle
Sphincter ani externus is an involuntary or voluntary muscle, why? voluntary muscle b/c it consists of skeletal muscle
Cavity in which the abdominal organs lie and is formed by muscular walls Abdominal Cavity
Parietal Peritoneum lines the walls of the peritoneal cavity
Visceral Peritoneum covers the surfaces of many abdominal viscera
Does the visceral peritoneum cover all abdominal viscera? No, it does not cover retroperitoneal viscera
What is the peritoneal cavity and what lies int it? A potential space between visceral and parietal peritoneum. No organs lie within this cavity(except ovaries), contains serous fluid
2 parts of the peritoneal cavity greater sac and lesser sac/omental bursa
The main peritoneal compartment of the peritoneal cavity greater sac
Smaller peritoneal compartment lesser sac/omental bursa
Where does the lesser sac/omental bursa usually lie? Predominately behind the stomach
What is the epiploic foramen(of Winslos) Opening between omental bursa/lesser sac and greater sac
Which part of the peritoneal cavity contains a upper and lower recess? Lesser Sac/Omental Bursa
Define retroperitoneal Certain organs that lie deep to the PARIETAL peritoneum. Retro. organs do NOT have a mesentary.
Double-layer of serous membrane(double-layer of peritoneum in abdominal cavity) Mesentary
T/F: Mesentary attaches a viscus to the abdominal wall True
T/F: Mesentary provides the organ's some support and no mobility False - provides for the organs support with some mobility
Mesentary provides a route for what to and from the organ blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics
Mesentary that attaches the small intestine to posterior abdominal wall mesentary proper
Mesentary which passes from the stomach to another abdominal viscus is called what? Omentum(special mesentary)
From greater curvature of the stomach, hangs down anteriorly to small intestine and is attached to the inferior border of the transverse colon Greater Omentum
Ligament in the greater omentum, what does it attach to? gastrocolic ligament; stomach and transverse colon
From lesser curvature of stomach and 1st inch of duodenum to liver Lesser Omentum
Two parts of the lesser omentum hepatogastric ligament and hepatoduodenal ligament
Hepatogastric ligament connects what? What does it contain? stomach to liver; gastric vessels
Hepatoduodenal ligament connects what? What does it contain? duodenum to liver; common bile duct, portal vein and hepatic artery, lymphatics and nerves
Gasrosplenic ligament connects mesentary from stomach to spleen
Splenorenal ligament connects mesentary from spleen to area just anterior to kidney
Falciform ligament connects mesentary from liver to anterior abdominal wall
Ant. and Post. coronary ligaments connects surrounding the bare area of liver; from liver to diaphragm
Largest gland and internal organ of the body Liver(about 4 lbs)
T/F: Liver is retroperitoneal False - It is not
Visceral surface of liver faces where? inferior and medial to the left
All structures entering or leaving the liver pass through this opening porta hepatis(hilus)
Impressions of the liver include what? stomach, duodenum, right colic flexure, right kidney and right adrenal gland
Liver includes a sulcus for what and fossa for what? IVC; Gall Bladder
2 lobes(right and left) of the liver, which ones bigger? large right lobe
What seperates the two lobes of the liver? falciform ligament on anterior side
Area of the liver NOT covered by visceral peritoneum, why? Bare area; this area comes into direct contact with the central tendon of the diaphragm
Endocrine gland of the pancreas is called what? islets of Langerhans
Exocrine gland of the pancreas is called what? acinar pancreas
Is the pancreas is retroperitoneal? Yes
Ducts of the pancreas? major/chief(of Wirsung) and minor/accessory(of Santorini)
Surface of the liver the opposes the respiratory diaphragm Diaphragmatic surface
Large right lobe of the liver is separated into two other lobes, what are they? quadrate and caudate lobe
Which sub lobe of the liver is anterior to porta hepatis? Quadrate Lobe
Which sub lobe of the liver is posterior to the porta hepatis? Caudate Lobe
Vertical fold of mucosa in median plane of mouth extending between lips and gum Labial Frenulum
Mucosa around teeth Gingiva
Vertical fold of mucosa in median plane of mouth extending between the inferior surface of the tongue and the floor of the mouth Lingual Frenulum
Anterior tip of tongue Apex
Most of tongue; extends from apex to root Body of tongue
Posterior part of tongue Root of tongue
Most of the root of the tongue's surface is covered by what? lingual tonsil
Extending upward behind the root of the tongue is what? epiglottis
Is the epiglottis part of the tongue? No, it's part of the larynx
A groove extending along the median line of the body of tongue Median Sulcus
Median sulcus ends just____(ant/post) to the root of the tongue in a small depression termed the ____ Anterior; Foramen Cecum
A groove on the dorsum of the tongue running forward and lateralward on either side to margin of tongue (invereted V) Terminal Sulcus
The terminal sulcus separates what from what of the tongue? posterior 1/3 from anterior 2/3 of tongue
3 major salivary glands? Parotid, Submandibular, Sublingual
Which gland is located just anterior to ear, between skin and masseter muscle? Parotid Gland
The ____ duct, passes superficial to the masseter, then through the buccinator to enter the mouth Parotid Duct
The parotid duct enters the mouth via what? A small papilla near the upper 2nd molar
Which gland is easily palpated as a soft mass located medial to the lower lateral border of the body of the mandible? Submandibular Gland
The ____ duct runs anteriorly to open into the floor of the mouth as a small caruncula just lateral to the lingual frenulum Submandibular Duct
Gland that is located under the tongue in the floor of the mouth Sublingual Gland
The sublingual gland is covered by a horizontal fold of mucosa called what and secretes through this fold via numerous small what? Sublingual Fold; Sublingual Ducts
Another name for the following: parotid duct - submandibular duct - sublingual duct - Stensen's; Wharton's; ducts of Rivinus
Minor salivary glands: palatine, lingual, buccal, labial and molar
Minor salivary gland in the palate palatine
Minor salivary gland in the inferior tongue lingual
Minor salivary gland deep to the inner surface of cheeks buccal
Minor salivary gland withing the inner surface of lips labial
Minor salivary gland posterior to lower 3rd molar Molar
How man deciduous teeth are there, how many in each quadrant? 20; 5 in each quadrant
Usually all the deciduous teeth have erupted by when? By 2 years of age
Deciduous teeth beginning at the median plane are as follows: Central Incisor, Lateral Incisor, Cuspid(canine), 1st Molar, 2nd Molar
How many permanent teeth are there and how many in each quadrant? 32; 8 in each quadrant
The permanent teeth erupt during ages ____ up to ____, but replace the deciduous during ages ____. 6-17; 25; 7-12
Permanent teeth at the median plane are as follows: Central Incisor, Lateral Incisor, Cuspid(canine), 1st Bicuspid(1st premolar), 2nd Bicupsid(2nd prmolar), 1st Molar, 2nd Molar, 3rd Molar(wisdom tooth)
Dental Forumula I2/2, C1/1, B2/2, M3/3 = 16
The incisors have how many roots? 1 root
The cuspids have how many roots and which one is the longest? 1 root; maxillary cuspid
Which bicupsid is the only one with 2 roots? Maxillary 1st bicupsid
Usually maxillary molars have __ roots and mandibular molars have __ roots 3;2
Permanent incisors replace which deciduous teeth deciduous incisors
Permanent cuspids replace which deciduous teeth deciduous cuspids
Permanent bicupsids replace which deciduous teeth deciduous molars
Permanent molars replace which deciduous teeth replace no deciduous teeth
3 parts of the tooth crown, neck and root
Portion of the tooth covered by enamel anatomical crown
Portion of the anatomical crown exposed to oral cavity clinical crown
Part of tooth between anatomical crown and root neck
Part of tooth that anchors tooth to jaw root
hardest and densest part of the tooth enamel
Makes up the bulk of the tooth dentin
Dentin has a resemblance to bone in hardness, but differs in structure - It's covered by ___ over the crown and ___ over the root enamel; cement(cementum)
Located in the center of the tooth and deep to the dentin. What does it contain? Pulp Cavity; blood vessels, nerves and CT
The pulp cavity extends down into the roots as the what? Root Canals
Openings through which blood vessels and nerves enter the pulp cavity in the tips of the roots Apical Foramina
Covers the root of the tooth and attaches it to the surrounding tissues of the alveolar socket Cement(cementum)
Collagenous fibers located between the cement of the root and the periosteum of the alveolar socket wall Periodontal Membrane
Junction of cement and enamal Cervical Line(cemento-enamel juncture)
Crevice created when gingiva is gently pulled away from the crown of the tooth Gingival Sulcus
Crevis that can trap food debris and bacteria that leads to gingivitis Gingivial Sulcus
Created by: 1277880004