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Biochem 2 Exam 1

All reactions of glycolysis occur in the? Cytoplasm
In glycolysis, glucose (C6) is converted to? 2 pyruvate (C3)
In glycolysis, how much energy is made? Small amount
Preparatoy phase in glycolysis, how much energy is invested? 2 ATP
What happens in PREPARATORY phase in glycolysis? Phosporylation of glucose and its conversion to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
What happens in PAYOFF phase in glycolysis? Oxidative conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to pyruvate and the couple formation of ATP & NADH
End result of glycolysis? 2 pyruvate per glucose
Starting point of gluconeogenesis? Pyruvate
Ending point of gluconeogenesis? Glucose
Where is gluconeogenesis found? Mainly in liver/Hepatocytes/renal cortex
NET energy requirement in gluconeogenesis? 6 ATP/glucose (4ATP+2GTP)
What enzyme occurs exclusively in matrix of mitochondria? Pyruvate carboxylase
Enzymes are __ dependent? Mg
PEP carboxylase can be found? In cytosolic and/or mitochondria
Define Isoenzyme? Enzymes that catalyze same reaction (same substrate & same product) in different cell compartments or tissues. They are encoded by separate genes.
Examples of Isoenzyme? Mitochondria/catosolic: PEP carboxylase, Malate dehydrogenase
ANABOLIC pathways need ___ and ____. ATP and reduced E- carriers
CATABOLIC pathways PRODUCE ___ and YEILD __. ATP and reduced E- carriers
Lactate is formed in what two things? Anaerobic skeletal muscle and RBC(does not have mitochondria)
Lactate can be recycled back to what? Back to glucose in the liver
The Anaerobic breakdown of glucose in skeletal muscle and the recycling of its product to glucose in the liver is called? Cori cycle
What is the cost of ATP in Cori cycle? 2 ATP
Where is glycogen stored? Liver and skeletal muscle
What type of energy storage is glycogen? Short term energy storage
Glucose from glycogen enters glycolytic pathways through action of 3 enzymes? (1)glycogen phosphorylase (2)glycogen debranching enzyme (3)phosphoglucomutase
Glycogen breakdown = Glycogenolysis
What occurs during glycogenolysis? In the liver, when blood glucose drops, glucose 6-phopsphate can get converted back to glucose by GLUCOSE 6-PHOSPHATASE (in ER)
Glycogen synthesis is prominent where? In liver and skeletal muscle
What is the starting point of glycogen synthesis? Glucose 6-phosphate
Glycogen synthesis: Glucose-6-P <==> Glucose-1-P Phosphoglucomutase
Glycogen synthesis: Glucose-1-P + UTP <==> UDP-glucose+PPi UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
Glycogen synthase adds glucose to? Adds glucose to a nonreducing end of a branched glycogen molecule
Glycogen branching enzyme...? Creates alpha1-->6 branches
Glycogenin catalyzes... Catalyzes the synthesis of a (alpha1->4)polyglucose primer
Other names for pentose pathway? Phosphogluconate pathway and hexose monophosphate pathway
Significance of ribose-5-phosphate? High demand in fast dividing tissues
What is glutathione? Antioxidant
The oxidative phase of Pentose Phosp. pathway has how many enzymatic steps? 4 steps. 2 are redox reactions
Oxidative phase of pentose phosp pathway is located where? In cytoplasm
The first 3 steps in the oxidative phase of pentose phosp pathway are dependent on what? Mg dependent
What is the firs step (point of regulation) in the oxidative phase of the pentose phosp pathway? glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
The nonoxidative phase of pentose phos pathway occurs where? In tissues that require primarily NADPH
What is the purpose of the nonoxidative phase of pentose phos pathway? Recyling of pentose phosphates
Enzymes involved in the nonoxidative phase of pentose phos pathway? Transketolase and Transaldose
Transketolase is dependent on what? TPP (thiamine pyrophosphate) Vitamin B1
Mobilize fats are stored in? Adipocytes
Where are excess carbohydrates converted? In liver
What two organs primarily rely on fatty acids for energy? Liver and Heart
1st step in digestion in small intestine? Bile salts emulsify fats forming MICELLES
2nd step in digestion in small intestine? Intestinal lipases degrade triacylglycerols
3rd step in digestion in small intestine? Fatty acids and others take up by intestinal mucosa and converted into triacylglycerols
4th step in digestion in small intestine? Triacylglycerol are incorporated with CHOLESTEROL and APOLIPOPROTEINS into CHYLOMICRONS
5th step in digestion in small intestine? CHYLOMICRONS move though the lymp and bloodstream to tissues
6th step in digestion in small intestine? Lipoprotein LIPASE activated by APOC-II in the capillary
When lipase is activated by APOC-II, what happens? Converts triacylglycerols to fatty acids and glycerol
7th step in digestion in small intestine? Fatty acids enter cells
8th step in digestion in small intestine? Fatty aids are oxidized as fuel or reesterified for storage
What is inside the chylomicron? Hydrophobic cholesterol ESTERS
What is outside the chylomicron? Hydrophilic CHOLESTEROL
What is mobilization of stored triacylglycerols trigged by? Glucagon and Epinephrine
What triggers glucagon? Low blood glucose
What triggers epinephrine? Exercising
Hormones lead to activation of? Hormone sensitive lipase
Triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed into? 3 fatty acids and glycerol
Free fatty acids bind to what blood protein? Serum albumin
Two ways FFA transported into mitochondria? Activation and Carnitine shuttle
3 stages of oxidation of fatty acids? (1)beta oxidation (2)citric acid cycle (3)respiratory chian
B-oxidation of SATURATED fatty acids have how many steps? 4 enzymantic steps, 2 which are OXIdative
B-oxidation of SATURATED fatty acids results in? Formation of acetyl-CoA
CoA-Sh is dependent on what? Pantothenic Acid
Each cycle of B-oxidation yields? 1 FADH, 1 NADH, 1 acetyl-CoA
In UNsaturateed Fatty acids, if double bond in wrong position (odd #)? Moved to B-position
Polyunsaturation requires REDUCTION of double bonds catalyzed by NADPH dependent enzyme? 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase
Odd number fatty acids are found in? Plants and marine organisms
What is the shortest odd number fatty acid? Propionate (C3) - found in milk/meat
Total ATP yield from glycerol? 16 1/2 - 18 1/2
Ketones present during? Starvation or uncontrolled diabetes
Ketones formed from? Acetyl-CoA
Ketones found in? Matrix of mitochondria in hepatocytes
Where are ketones exported? To extrahepatic tissue for energy production
What is the first ketone formed? Acetoacetate
Acetoacetate divides into? Acetone and D-B-Hydroxybutyrate
Glycogen is a ___ polysaccharide Branched homo-
Glycogen is stored in? Liver and skeletal muscle
What enzyme is found only in glycogen catabolism ? Glycogen phosphorylase
Products of the pentose phosphate pathway are used as? Nucleotide building blocks, antioxidants, and electron donors in biosynthetic processes
What metabolite is found in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, glycogenolysis, and pentose phos? Glucose-6-phosphate
FFA gets transported from adipose tissue to energy requiring tissues by? Bound to albuim
Energy cost to activate a fatty acid to fatty acyl-CoA? 2 ATP
Through B-oxidation fatty acids are? Oxidized to acetyl-CoA
Where does B-oxidation occur? In mitochondria
Fatty acid synthesis occurs mainly in the? Liver
What elongates the fatty acyl group during fatty acid synthesis? Malonyl-CoA
Carboxylase are dependent on what? Biotin
Biosynthesis of fatty acids is located in? Tissues: Liver and adipose tissues within the cytoplasm
Enzymes of biosynthesis of fatty acids? fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase
What is one fatty acid that is synthesized? Palmite
Transporter of acetyl-CoA? None
NAD+ is dependent on what? Niacin
NADP+ is dependent on what? Nitacin
Synthases _____ use ATP DO NOT directly use ATP
SynthOtase ___ ATP Use ATP
Formation of malonyl-CoA is done by what enzyme? Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase **7ATP/palmite**
Formation of fatty acid synthesis is done by what enzyme? Fatty acid synthase which is dependent on NADPH (Niacin dependent)
Created by: wizdumbslp