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NWHSU Biochem2 Exam1

NWHSU Biochem 2

Fasting Blood Glucose? 70-99mg/dl 70-145mg/dl 70-125mg/dl 70-99mg/dl
Random Blood Glucose level (Casual) 70-99mg/dl 70-145mg/dl 70-125mg/dl 70-125mg/dl
2 Hours after eating (postprandial) 70-99mg/dl 70-145mg/dl 70-125mg/dl 70-145mg/dl
Diabetes level and prediabetic level? ___-___mg/dl >___mg/dl 100-120mg/dl >120mg/dl
Subtle neurological signs of diabetes include? hunger, release of glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, sweating, trembling,
More serious signs of diabetes if prolonged. Convulsions, coma, permanent brain damage, death
Glycogen to pyruvate? Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Glycogenesis Glycogenolysis Glycolysis
Glucose to Glycogen? Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Glycogenesis Glycogenolysis Glycogenesis
Glycogen to Glucose Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Glycogenesis Glycogenolysis Glycogenolysis
Pyruvate to Glucose? Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis Glycogenesis Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis
Glycolysis happens where? cytoplasm
Partial oxidation of _____ in Glycolysis. C (-> NADH)
Glycolysis produces a small amount of ____ energy (ATP)
Phosphorylation of glucose and its conversion to ________________________. (preparatory phase) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Oxidative conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to _______ and the couple formation of ATP and NADH. (Payoff phase) Pyruvate
Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in the _________, to a much lesser extent in the _________. Liver, Renal cortex
many enzymes are ____ dependent. mg2+
In gluconeogenesis, transporters are needed for _________ and ______. Oxaloacetate and NAD+/NADH
Mitochondria needs _______ to survive. Oxaloacetate
NADH is needed for _________. Gluconeogenesis
Exercising produces ______ which becomes Pyruvate. Lactate
During Gluconeogenesis when exercising.. pyruvate ends where in the cell? (PEP) Where is the NADH + H+ needed for gluconeogenesis used in the cell? Mitochondria, Cytosol
When starving pyruvate ends where in the cell? (PEP)Where is the NADH + H+ needed for gluconeogenesis used in the cell? Cytosol, Cytosol
Citric Acid Cycle and Gluconeogenesis are linked through ______ dehydrogenase. Malate
Enzymes that catalyze the same reaction (same subtrate, same product) in different cell compartments or tissues and are encoded by seperate genes? Isoenzymes
Pep carboxykinase is located in the cytosol during ______ pathway and it is located in the mitochondrion during the ______ pathway. Pep carboxykinase is an example of an ________. Starving, Exercising (muscles become anaerobic), Isoenzyme
Malate dehydrogenase is located in the mitochondria and cytosol during the _________ pathway. Malate is an example of an ________. Starving, Isoenzyme
2 pyruvate + 4ATP + 2GTP + 2NADH _ 4H2O----> (overall reaction of gluconeogenesis) glucose +4ADP + 2GDP + 6Pi +2NAD
Anabolic or Catabolic Need ATP + e- donors. Produce ATP and yield reduced e- carriers. Anabolic Need ATP + e- donors. Catabolic Produce ATP and yield reduced e- carriers.
_________ is formed in skel muscle tissue and RBC's (no mitochondria). Lactate
Lactate can be reduced back to _______ in the _____. Glucose, Liver
Glucose--->2 Pyruvate------>2 Lactate What are the 2 steps(Arrows) What is recycled between those two steps. Glucolysis and fermentation 2NAD+ and 2NADH are recycled between the two steps
During the cori cycle in the _______ ATP is produced by ________ for rapid contraction. In the liver ATP used in synthesis of glucose (________) during recovery. muscle, glycolysis gluconeogenesis
Glycogen is a ________ homopolysaccharide, its monomer is _________. Connections 1->4 branched with 1->(?) branched glucose 6
glycogen is found in the _____(Up to 10%), and ____________ (up to 1-2%. It is ________ term energy storage and is absent after 24 hr fast. liver, skel muscle short
Glycogen Breakdown is also called? Glycogenolysis
What three enzymes does glycogen use to enter glycolytic pathway? Glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen debranching enzyme, phosphoglucomutase.
In _____ when blood glucose levels drop, glucose 6-phosphate can get converted back to glucose by _______________ in ____? Liver, glucose 6-phosphatase in ER
Where does glycogen synthesis take place? liver and skeletal muscle
glucose 6-P->glucose 1-P->UDP-glucose + PPi This is an example of __________. Glycogen synthesis
What is another name for phosphogluconate pathway and hexose monophosphate pathway? Pentose Phosphate pathway
Glutathione is what? Antioxidant
What is in high demand for fast dividing tissues in the pentose phosphate pathway? Ribose 5-Phosphate
In the oxidative phase in the Pentose Phosphate pathway Which step is the point of regulation? 1st step (Glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate)
In the Pentose Phosphate pathway how many enzymatic steps are there and how many redox reactions. 4 and 2
The Pentose Phosphate pathway is located ___________ in all tissues in the cytoplasm
First 3 steps of the pentose phoshate pathway are ____ dependent? Mg2+
Glucose 6-P + 2NADP + H2O---> (Pentose Phosphate pathway overall) Ribose 5-P + CO2 + 2NADPH
The Nonoxidative phase in the pnetose phosphate pathway starts and ends with ____ Carbons. 30 Carbons
6 Ribose 5-P ----> __________? (Nonoxidative phase of pentose phosphate pathway. 5 Glucose 6-P
_______ and __________ catalyze interconversions of C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C7- in the nonoxidative phase of pentose phosphate pathway Ketolase and Aldolase
Fars provide more than 50% of daily energy requirement for several organs: liver, heart, and resting skeletal muscle
Bile salts emulsify dietary fats in the _______ forming _______. small intestine mixed micelles
Intestinal lipases degrade __________ into fatty acids. Triacylglycerols
Fatty acids and other breakdown products are taken up by the intestinal mucosa and converted into ________. triacylglycerols
Triacyllgycerols are incorperated with cholesterol and apolipoproteins into __________. chylomicrons
__________ move through the lymphatic system and bloodstream to tissues. chylomicrons
lipoprotein lipase, activated by apoC-II in the capillary, converts triacylglycerols to _______ and _____. fatty acids and glycerol
Lipoprotein lipase is found in ______. Blood
Hormone Sensitive lipase is found in _________. Adipocytes
Fatty acids are oxidized as fuel or reesterified for storage. This is triggered by ______(When blood glucose low) and )___________ when we exercise glucagon, and epinephrine
Free fatty acids in blood bind to ________ serum albumin
Plasma membrane transporters of target tissues move __________ into cells. FFA
Transport of fatty acids into Mitochondria requires __ATP, and CoA. Transport via ________ shuttle. 2ATP Carnitine shuttle
Oxidation of fatty acids happens in what 3 stages. Beta Oxidation-->Citric Acid Cycle--->Electron transfer chain
Beta Oxidation has ___ enzymatic steps (___ of them oxidative. It results in formation of _________. 4 and 2 Acetyl-CoA
Put in order for Beta Oxidation: Palmitoyl-CoA(Any fatty acid), B-Ketoacyl-CoA, Enoyl-CoA, L-B-Hydroxyacyl-Coa, Acetyl CoA Palmitoyl-CoA-->Enoyl-CoA--->L-B-Hydroxyacyl-CoA-->B-Ketoacyl-CoA--Acetyl-CoA
What is the intermediate of each of the four steps of Beta Oxidation and what Vitamin are they dependent of? 1-FADtoFADH2 (Riboflavin dependent) 2-H2O 3-NAD+toNADH (Niacin Dependent) 4-CoA-SH (pantothenic Acid)
What are the four enzymes used in each step of beta oxidation? 1-Acyl CoA dehydrogenase 2-Enoyl CoA Hydratase 3-B-Hydroxyayl-CoA dehydrogenase 4-Thiolase
In oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids _ double bond(s) are processed at a time and naturally occurring ___-configuration has to be converted to ____. one double bond cis to trans
Trans-fatty acids metabolized more like _____ fatty acids? saturated
Odd number fatty acids are _____ common than even number fatty acids. less
Propionate is the _____ of glucose. fermentation
In 3 enzymatic steps (carboxylation, 2 rearrangement of substituents) ____-CoA is converted to succinyl-CoA Propionyl
ATP yield from Glycerol = ____ ATP/Glycerol 16.5-18.5
Fate of Glycerol (Glycerol-->L-Glycerol-3-phosphate-->dihydroxyacetone phosphate---> ______) D-Glyceraldehyde-3-P
Gluconeogenesis happens in ________. Liver
Ketosis means high ammounts of _____ in blood and urine. normally 3mg/ml vs ___mg/ml This leads to high amounts of ______ which is toxic Ketones 90 acetone
Ketones are formed from ____ (if it builds up or if not enough of it) Acetyl-CoA
Ketones are formed in the ________ in hepatocytes. matix of mitochondria
Ketone bodies originally refered to as not very _______ compounds. soluble
Ketones are exported to extrahepatic tissue for __________. energy production
Fate of Ketones produces _______ in smaller amounts which is mainly exhaled acetone
Acetoacetate is transported to extrahepatic tissue such as ________ during the catabolism of ketones. skeletal muscle, heart, renal cortex, brain.
In the end ketones are converted to _______ and used for energy production. acetyl-CoA
Created by: T1NWHSU
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