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U.SHistoryExamReview

Jacksonian Democracy-The Civil War

TermDefinition
Jacksonian Democracy During Jackson's presidency, he was connected to a period of active political and governmental participation. Major democratic reforms through the 1820's and 1830's including the granting of more white males suffrage.
States' Rights Doctrine A document that says state power should be stronger than federal power. The writer, John C. Calhoun, encourages states' to nullify any and every law they feel they don't have to abide.
Daniel Webster An American politician and Senator of Massachusetts, who cried out against nullification. He felt that the welfare of the nation is more important than that of the states.
McCulloch v. Maryland Said the National Bank, which had been on the end of some very nasty controversy, was concluded to be constitutional. Initiated when James McCulloch, cashier to the Maryland section of the bank, refused to pay a tax set by the state to limit the bank.
Indian Removal Act The mass relocation of thousands of Natives to present-day Oklahoma. Resulted in thousands of deaths (Trail of Tears) and sparked Native resistance.
Worcester v. Georgia The court ruling saying the Cherokee nation were their own people that the residents of Georgia could not force to submit.
Osceola The Seminole leader who attempted to lead a Native resistance in Florida. After starting the Second Seminole War, he was arrested and died in prison. His followers continued to resist, and many were successful.
Oregon Trail One of the two leading trails during the westward expansion (the other being the Santa Fe). Difficult trail to pioneer, as price was high, weather was bad and shortages of food often occurred. Trail was 2,000 miles long.
Briham Young Second leader of the Mormon Church. Led after the original leader, Joseph Smith, was killed by anti-Mormon mobs in 1844. He chose Utah to be the new home and relocated the people by using the Mormon Trail near the Great Salt Lake.
Stephen F. Austin A young empresario who started a Texas colony before near the Colorado River. His settlement was successful, and thus Texas was born from the Old Three Hundred who arrived.
Texas Independence American settlers from Texas revolted against Mexico to become independent on March 2nd, 1836, after declaring themselves as so. The new Republic of Texas modeled their deceleration and constitution after the U.S'.
Battle of the Alamo Mexico's Santa Anna began assembling forces hoping to put an end to the rebellion. Texas volunteers occupied a small mission near San Antonio, hoping to stall the Mexicans before a larger army arrived. From Febuary 23-March 6. All defenders were killed.
Battle of San Jacinto Sam Houston defeated the Mexicans on April 21, 1836 in a decisive, 18-minute battle. Texan army engaged and defeated General Antonio Lopez of the Mexican army.
Manifest Destiny During the early to mid-1800s, westward expansion seemed like a God-given idea to the Americans. Many hoped to spread democracy, others just to find a new home. They felt destined to move. Environment took a toll, but the economy was through well.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo In 1848, the Mexican-American war officially ended with the signing of this document. Both sides signed, although Mexico was forced to give up California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and some parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
Forty-Niners Emigrants from different regions (mostly other states, but many did come from other countries) who were in search of gold from the newly acquired California. Many left their homes to strike it rich, as most suffered "gold fever".
Industrial Revolution Rapid manufacturing and business development. Influenced by English machines, the North moved from agriculture to clothing, gun, equipment, and other productions. Began with textile industry. Steam power, mass production and factories became common.
Samuel Slater Englishman who memorized the design of some of his country's technology, moved to American under the guise of a farmer, and gave his ideas to America. He and his partner opened the first Pawtucket mill in 1793.
Richard Arkwright Invented the water frame in 1769, used to increase cloth production. Using flowing water as a power source, explaining why textile mills were in the North, which had fast flowing rivers.
Eli Whitney Inventor of the cotton gin (which helped improve the South's economy and increased slavery. Assisted in cotton boom from about 1791-1860), interchangeable parts and mass production.
Interchangeable parts Parts of technology that were identical, making things easier to repair or replace.
Lowell System The hiring of young, unmarried women mainly from agricultural families into textile mills. The women lived in boarding houses and were provided with food and rooms. Started by Francis Cabot Lowell.
Sarah G. Bagely Mill & union worker and founder of the Lowell Female Reform Association in 1844, she made the factory worker's struggle in the mills known through pamphlets and petitions. Hoped an investigation would happen to reduce hours of private and public workers.
Robert Fulton Developer of first successful commercial steamboat, the Clermont, after testing it's design in France, 1803.
Peter Cooper Built Tom Thumb in 1830, a small but potent locomotive.
Gibbons v. Ogden Case in 1824 where Supreme Court reinforced the government's power to regulate trade between states by ending waterway ownership, freeing them up traders and shippers.
Effect of Railroads Increased business growth, such as logging and newspaper. Increased city population, such as Chicago. Helped improve communication too.
Nativists Americans opposed to immigration. Between 1840's-1850's some were actually leading political anti-immigrant movements, fearing that they, namely the Irish and Germans, would steal their jobs.
Sojourner Truth A former slave who claimed God called her to travel across the U.S and preach women's rights and abolition.
Seneca Falls Convention Attended by about 240 people (women and men), opened on July 19, 1848 by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott in New York. Signed Deceleration of Sentiments, signed by 100 something people.
Susan B. Anthony A prominent women's rights leader, who turned the issue into a political issue, arguing women should have the same pay and professions as men. Thanks to her, in 1860 married women were allowed to own land and wages.
Wilmot Proviso A document written by David Wilmot, banning slavery in any territory annexed from Mexico after the Mexican-American war. The North controlled House passed it, but the South controlled Senate denied it.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Created Kansas and Nebraska, and allowed it's residents to decide on slave or free status. Eliminated Henry Clay's slave state line. Northerners were angry, but the South supported it and it was signed into law on May 30, 1854.
List of first seceded Confederate States South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi.
Jefferson Davis President of Confederacy as of 1861. Initially wanted to be the commanding general of Mississippi's troops and was reluctant to become Confederate president.
Fort Sumter A federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1861, it was attacked by the Confederacy, starting the Civil War.
List of border states (as of the start of the war) Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland and Missouri. Many were divided (emotionally) about the war. Some wanted to secede, others didn't.
Winfield Scott Union general for first part of war. He had two strategies- Using a naval blockade on the South's ports to destroy their economy, and divide the South by gaingin control over the Mississippi.
Pickett's Charge An infantry attack in which Confederate General George Pickett commanded a unit of about 15,000 men to march toward Cemetery Ridge. They suffered severe losses, and later retreated towards Virginia. Union General Meade did not follow, angering Lincoln.
Sherman Strikes the South In 1864, Lincoln needed another victory to keep him in office. General William Sherman and 100,000 troops went to the South intent on capturing Atlanta, Georgia. Much of the city was destroyed and residents were ordered to leave. Lincoln was re-elected.
Appomattox Courthouse When Union and Confederate leaders met to end the war on April 9, 1865. Confederate General Lee surrendered to Union General Grant.
Freedman's Bureau An organization meant to provide relief and help the newly freed people and certain poor southerners.
Plessy v. Ferguson A case in which a man of mixed race, Homer Plessy, was arrested after sitting in a white's only train car in 1892. He argued Louisiana was breaking the 14th Amendment and was being denied equal protection. Established "Separate but equal" mindset.
Created by: Saya-Bella